What does c.r.i.p stand for
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A less widely circulated story has it that the name stems from a version of the Crip walk — which, unlike its present-day dance incarnation — once involved a sort of limp. As it turns out, however, these stories are all dead wrong. Washington was killed what does c.r.i.p stand for a shootout in Williams was executed by the state of California in late But he left what does c.r.i.p stand for a manuscript that sets the record straight. There are already several South L.
But, most important, Williams describes how the Crips changed from a group of disaffected teenagers seeking self-protection to an army of gun-wielding, drug-dealing homeboys whose blood feuds would spread grief throughout the city and beyond.
Yes, of course. And hell followed after. The last of these occurs when he, at 18 and the Crips not yet a year old, is assigned by the courts, after a string of lockups for various offenses, into a program in the Banning area called Factor Brookins. None of us even thought about ditching class or school. For the first time in my chaotic life there appeared a chance to uplift myself. The respite from thug life is short.
As the title suggests, the book is divided into two parts. He describes his deliverance from the rage that had long-defined him as occurring slowly and without benefit of blinding epiphanies. The principle appears to hold true with Williams, for whom composing cautionary tales about the dead end that is gang membership turns out to be transformative. Williams was executed Dec.
All Sections. About Us. B2B Publishing. Business Visionaries. Hot Property. Times Events. Times What does c.r.i.p stand for. Special Supplements. Facebook Twitter Show more sharing options Share Close extra sharing options. Behind the Crips mythos By Celeste Fremon.
What does CRIPS mean?
At the end of , it operated 7, miles of road on 10, miles of track; that year it reported 20, million ton-miles of revenue freight and million passenger-miles.
Those totals may or may not include the former Burlington-Rock Island Railroad. The song » Rock Island Line «, a spiritual from the late s first recorded in , was inspired by the railway.
Construction began in Chicago on October 1, , and the first train was operated on October 10, , between Chicago and Joliet. Construction continued on through La Salle , and Rock Island was reached on February 22, , becoming the first railroad to connect Chicago with the Mississippi River.
The steamboat was overcome by a fire, which also destroyed a span of the bridge. This accident caused a series of court cases. In one of the cases, Abraham Lincoln , a lawyer at the time, represented the Rock Island. Lincoln argued that not only was the steamboat at fault in striking the bridge, but that bridges across navigable rivers were to the advantage of the country. The railroad expanded through construction and acquisitions in the following decades. The easternmost reach of the system was Chicago, and the system also reached Memphis, Tennessee.
Southernmost reaches were to Galveston, Texas , and Eunice, Louisiana , while in a northerly direction, the Rock Island got as far as Minneapolis, Minnesota.
In common with most American railroad companies, the Rock Island once operated an extensive passenger service. The Rock Island ran both limited and local service on those routes, as well as locals on many other lines on its system. In , the Rock Island introduced diesel power to its passenger service, with the purchase of six lightweight Rocket streamliners.
On this route, the Rock Island’s train was marketed as a «low-altitude» crossing of the Continental Divide. The Rock Island did not concede to the Santa Fe’s dominance in the Chicago—Los Angeles travel market and re-equipped the train with new streamlined equipment in At the same time, the Limited was dropped from the train’s name and the train was thereafter known as the Golden State.
The local run on this line was known as the Imperial , which had a branch operating through the northwestern edge of Mexico.
The modernization of the Golden State occurred with some controversy. In , both the Rock Island and Southern Pacific jointly advertised the coming of a new entry in the Chicago-Los Angeles travel market. The Golden Rocket was scheduled to closely match the Santa Fe’s transit time end-to-end and was to have its own dedicated trainsets, one purchased by the Rock Island, the other by Southern Pacific.
As the Rock Island’s set of streamlined passenger cars was being finished, the Southern Pacific abruptly withdrew its purchase. The Rock Island’s cars were delivered and found their way into the Golden State’ s fleet soon after delivery.
The Golden State was the last first-class train on the Rock Island, retaining its dining cars and sleeping cars until its last run on February 21, The Rock Island conceded nothing to its rival, even installing ABS signaling on the route west of Lincoln in an effort to maintain transit speed.
The train was also re-equipped with streamlined equipment in As the Rocky Mountain Rocket was downgraded due to nonrail competition, the route traveled by the train was gradually shortened from onward.
Its western terminus was cut back first to Omaha, then to Council Bluffs. After briefly running without a name, it was renamed The Cornhusker. Finally, in , the train was cut back to a Chicago-Rock Island run entirely within the confines of the state of Illinois and renamed the Quad Cities Rocket. By the time Amtrak was formed in , the once-proud Rock Island was down to just two intercity trains, the Chicago-Peoria Peoria Rocket and the Chicago-Rock Island Quad Cities Rocket, both of which now operated entirely within the borders of Illinois.
However, the Rock Island opted against joining Amtrak, in part because the government assessed the Amtrak entrance fee based upon passenger miles operated in After concluding that the cost of joining would be greater than remaining in the passenger business, the railroad decided to «perform a public service for the state of Illinois» and continue intercity passenger operations.
To help manage the service, the Rock Island hired National Association of Railroad Passengers founder Anthony Haswell as managing director of passenger services. The last two trains plied the Rock Island’s Illinois Division as the track quality declined from through The State of Illinois continued to subsidize the service to keep it running.
The track program of helped with main-line timekeeping, although the Rock Island’s management decreed that the two trains were not to delay freight traffic on the route. By this time, both once-proud trains were down to just two coaches, powered by EMD E8 locomotives entering their second decade of service.
With the trains frequently running with as many paying passengers as coaches in the train, Illinois withdrew its subsidy, and the two trains made their final runs on December 31, The Rock Island also operated an extensive commuter train service in the Chicago area.
The main-line trains supplanted the long-distance services that did not stop at the numerous stations on that route. The Suburban Line served the Beverly Hills area of Chicago as a branch leaving the main line at Gresham and heading due west, paralleling the Baltimore and Ohio Chicago Terminal Railroad passenger line before turning south. From the s on, the suburban services were operated using Pacific-type locomotives and specially designed light-heavyweight coaches that with their late s build dates became known as the » Capone » cars.
In , Pullman -built series cars arrived as the first air-conditioned commuter cars on the line. In the s, the Rock Island tried to upgrade the suburban service with newer equipment at lower cost. Second-hand Aerotrains , while less than successful in intercity service, were purchased to provide further air-conditioned accommodations that had proven popular with the series cars.
When the Milwaukee Road purchased new Budd Company stainless-steel, bilevel cars in , the Rock Island elected to add to a subsequent order and took delivery of its first bilevel equipment in The engines were rebuilt with head end power to provide heat, air conditioning, and lighting for the new cars.
In , another order, this time for Pullman-built bilevel cars arrived to further supplement the fleet. The commuter service was not exempt from the general decline of the Rock Island through the s. Over time, deferred maintenance took its toll on both track and rolling stock. On the Rock Island, the Capone cars were entering their sixth decade of service and the nearly year-old s suffered from severe corrosion due to the steel used in their construction.
LaSalle Street Station , the service’s downtown terminal, suffered from neglect and urban decay with the slab roof of the train shed literally falling apart, requiring its removal. By this time, the Rock Island could not afford to replace the clearly worn-out equipment.
In , the entire Chicago commuter rail system began to receive financial support from the state of Illinois through the Regional Transportation Authority. Operating funds were disbursed to all commuter operators, and the Rock Island was to be provided with new equipment to replace the tired series and Capone cars. New Budd bilevels that were near copies of the Milwaukee Road cars arrived in The Rock Island’s commuter F and E units were relegated to freight service or the scrapyard.
With the end of the Rock Island, the RTA purchased the suburban territory and remaining Rock Island commuter equipment from the estate, while the Chicago and North Western Railway took over operations for a year before the RTA began operating it directly in LaSalle Street Station was torn down and replaced with the Chicago Stock Exchange building, with a smaller commuter station located one block south of the old station.
The RTA gradually rebuilt the track and added more new equipment to the service, leaving the property in better shape than it was in the Rock Island’s heyday, albeit with less track.
The Rock Island District , as the Rock Island’s suburban service is now known, now operates as part of Metra , the Chicago commuter rail agency. As the aura from those days waned in the late s, the Rock Island found itself faced with flat traffic, revenues, and increasing costs.
Despite this, the property was still in decent shape, making the Rock Island an attractive bride for another line looking to expand the reach of their current system. The Rock Island was known as «one railroad too many» in the plains states, basically serving the same territory as the Burlington , only over a longer route. The Midwest rail network had been built in the late 19th century to serve that era’s traffic. The mechanization of grain hauling gave larger reach to large grain elevators , reducing the need for the tight web of track that crisscrossed the plains states such as Iowa.
As for available overhead traffic, in , no less than six Class I carriers were serving as eastern connections for the Union Pacific at Omaha, all seeking a slice of the flood of western traffic that UP interchanged there. Under the ICC revenue rules in place at the time, the Rock Island sought traffic from Omaha, yet preferred to keep the long haul to Denver , where interchange could be made with the Denver and Rio Grande Western , a connection to the Western Pacific for haulage to the West Coast.
The only option for the Rock Island to grow revenues and absorb costs was to merge with another, perhaps more prosperous railroad. Both of these never advanced much beyond the data gathering and initial study phases. In , its last profitable year,   the Rock Island agreed to pursue a merger plan with the UP, which would form one large «super» railroad stretching from Chicago to the West Coast.
With these filings began the longest and most complicated merger case in Interstate Commerce Commission history. Faced with failing granger railroads and large Class I railroads seeking to expand, ICC Hearing Examiner Nathan Klitenic, presiding over the case, sought to balance the opposing forces and completely restructure the railroads west of the Mississippi River.
After 10 years of hearings and tens of thousands of pages of testimony and exhibits produced, Klitenic, now an administrative law judge, approved the Rock Island-Union Pacific merger as part of a larger plan for rail service throughout the West. During most of the ensuing merger process, Rock Island operated at a financial loss.
In , Rock Island earned its last profit. With the merger with Union Pacific seemingly so close, the Rock Island cut expenses to conserve cash. Expenditures on track maintenance were cut, passenger service was reduced as fast as the ICC would allow, and locomotives received only basic maintenance to keep them running.
The Rock Island began to take on a ramshackle appearance and derailments occurred with increasing frequency. In an effort to prop up its future merger mate, UP asked the Rock Island to forsake the Denver gateway in favor of increased interchange at Omaha. As a result, by , the Rock Island was no longer the attractive prospect it had once been in the s.
The cost-cutting measures enacted to conserve cash for the merger left the Rock Island property in such a state that the Union Pacific viewed the expense of bringing it back to viable operating condition to be severely prohibitive.
Additionally, the ICC attached conditions for both labor and operating concessions that the UP deemed too excessive for their tastes.
These factors led the Union Pacific to walk away from the deal later in From the vantage point of the railroad industry, Klitenic’s plan was viewed as an unmanageable and far too radical solution to both the granger railroad issue and the larger issue of the future of rail freight transportation in general. The visionary plan would not be realized until the megamergers of the s with the BNSF Railway and Union Pacific remaining as the two surviving major rail carriers west of the Mississippi.
Now set free and adrift, both operationally and financially, the Rock Island assessed its options. Ingram quickly sought to improve efficiency and sought FRA loans for the rebuild of the line, but finances caught up with the Rock Island all too quickly. Gibbons was selected as receiver and trustee by Judge Frank J. McGarr, with whom Gibbons had practiced law in the early s.
With its debts on hold, Rock Island charted a new course as a grain funnel from the Midwest to the port of Galveston, Texas. Grain shuttles that had no cabooses at the end of their trains became a cost-effective way to gain market share and help finance the plan internally.
Nevertheless, new and rebuilt locomotives arrived on the property in gleaming powder blue and white to replace some of the tired, filthy power. Track rebuild projects covered the system.
Main lines that had seen little or no maintenance in years were pulled from the mud. Rail and tie replacement programs attacked the maintenance backlog.
However, the FRA-backed loans that Ingram sought were thwarted by the lobbying efforts of competing railroads, which saw a healthy Rock Island as a threat to their own survival.
Who are the Bloods and Crips and what do they stand for? | The US Sun
Suggest new definition. References in periodicals archive? Thinking through non-normative crip and queer bodies, and the ways in which they are repressed, contained, and managed, collaborations between feminist theory and disability studies can be complementary; indeed, both perspectives «resist interpretations of certain bodily configurations and functionings as deviant; both question the ways that differences are invested with meaning; both examine the enforcement of universalising norms; both interrogate the politics of appearance; both explore the politics of naming; both forge positive identities» Garland-Thomson, In terms of the extraordinary bodies of disability cinema, the crip closet provides the «blank» backdrop against which to project disabled bodies as spectacles.
Feminist Queer Crip makes significant contributions to our understanding of how disability works in the world–contributions that no other academic book in the field of interdisciplinary disability studies has done as thoroughly. The future of disability. Bastards of the Party The gasification is controlled through the Crip mechanism, which moves along the coal seam from the production well to the injection well. Coal is abundant in many parts of the world but mining it is hazardous and costs a lot of money.
Could the answer be to burn it in the depths of the earth and syphon off the gas to create electricity? So we added the writing workshop, and we produce plays and do the Crip Slam. Act I: access: a unique program brings together disability and drama. Consistent with this paper’s theory, the results show that assault does Granger-cause membership in both Blood and Crip gangs. Youth gangs as pseudo-governments: implications for violent crime. Hoover Crips; when Cripin’ becomes a way of life.
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– What does c.r.i.p stand for
See: Organized crime groups in Canada. Thanks for your vote! Crips are publicly known to have an intense and bitter rivalry with the Bloods and lesser feuds with some Chicano gangs. Retrieve it.