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It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in Olympia is the state capital ; the state’s largest city is Seattle. Washington is often referred to as Washington state to distinguish it from the nation’s capital, Washington, D. Washington is the 18th-largest state , with an area of 71, square miles , km 2 , and the 13th-most populous state, with more than 7.
The remainder of the state consists of deep temperate rainforests in the west; mountain ranges in the west, central, northeast, and far southeast; and a semi-arid basin region in the east, central, and south, given over to intensive agriculture.
Mount Rainier , an active stratovolcano , is the state’s highest elevation at 14, feet 4, meters , and is the most topographically prominent mountain in the contiguous U. Washington is a leading lumber producer; its rugged surface is rich in stands of Douglas fir , hemlock , ponderosa pine , white pine , spruce , larch , and cedar.
The state is the largest producer of apples, hops, pears, blueberries, spearmint oil, and sweet cherries in the U. Manufacturing industries in Washington include aircraft, missiles, shipbuilding, and other transportation equipment, food processing, metals, and metal products, chemicals, and machinery. Washington is one of the wealthiest as well as most socially liberal states in the country.
Wade loosened abortion laws nationwide. Stanton found the name too similar to the District of Columbia the national capital, itself containing the city of Washington , and proposed naming the new territory after President Washington.
Confusion over the state of Washington and the city of Washington, D. The 9,year-old skeletal remains of Kennewick Man , one of the oldest and most complete human remains found in North America, were discovered in Washington in the s. Prominent among their industries were salmon fishing and, notably among the Makah , whale hunting. The smallpox epidemic of the s devastated the Native American population.
The first recorded European landing on the Washington coast was by Spanish Captain Don Bruno de Heceta in ,  on board the Santiago , part of a two-ship flotilla with the Sonora. He claimed the coastal lands up to Prince William Sound for Spain as part of their claimed rights under the Treaty of Tordesillas , which they maintained made the Pacific a «Spanish lake» and all its shores part of the Spanish Empire. The British—Spanish Nootka Convention of ended Spanish claims of exclusivity and opened the Northwest Coast to explorers and traders from other nations, most notably Britain and Russia as well as the fledgling United States.
He named the river after his ship, the Columbia. The Lewis and Clark Expedition entered the state on October 10, Explorer David Thompson , on his voyage down the Columbia River, camped at the confluence with the Snake River on July 9, ,  and erected a pole and a notice claiming the territory for Great Britain and stating the intention of the North West Company to build a trading post at the site.
Britain and the United States agreed to what has since been described as «joint occupancy» of lands west of the Continental Divide to the Pacific Ocean as part of the Anglo—American Convention of , which established the 49th Parallel as the international boundary west from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. In , Spain ceded their rights north of the 42nd Parallel to the United States. Negotiations with Great Britain over the next few decades failed to settle upon a compromise boundary and the Oregon boundary dispute was highly contested between Britain and the United States.
Disputed joint occupancy by Britain and the U. With American settlers pouring into Oregon Country , Hudson’s Bay Company , which had previously discouraged settlement because it conflicted with the fur trade, reversed its position in an attempt to maintain British control of the Columbia District. Despite such efforts, Britain eventually ceded all claims to land south of the 49th parallel to the United States in the Oregon Treaty on June 15, In , a group of missionaries, including Marcus Whitman , established several missions and Whitman’s own settlement Waiilatpu, in what is now southeastern Washington state, near present-day Walla Walla County , in the territory of both the Cayuse and the Nez Perce Indian tribes.
Marcus provided medical care for the Native Americans, but when Indian patients—lacking immunity to new, «European» diseases—died in striking numbers, while at the same time many white patients recovered, they held «medicine man» Marcus Whitman personally responsible, and murdered Whitman and twelve other white settlers in the Whitman massacre in Fort Nisqually , a farm and trading post of the Hudson’s Bay Company and the first European settlement in the Puget Sound area, was founded in Spanish and Russian claims to the region were ceded in the early 19th century through a series of treaties.
The border established by the Oregon Treaty and finalized by the arbitration in remains the boundary between Washington and British Columbia. The growing population of Oregon Territory north of the Columbia River formally requested a new territory. Congress passed legislation and President Millard Fillmore signed into law on March 2, , the creation of a new Washington Territory.
A Washington state constitution was drafted and ratified in , but it was never officially adopted. Washington became the 42nd state of the United States on November 11, Early prominent industries in the new state included agriculture and lumber. In Eastern Washington, the Yakima River Valley became known for its apple orchards,  while the growth of wheat using dry farming techniques became particularly productive. Heavy rainfall to the west of the Cascade Range produced dense forests, and the ports along Puget Sound prospered from the manufacturing and shipping of lumber products, particularly the Douglas fir.
Other industries that developed in the state included fishing, salmon canning and mining. For a long period, Tacoma had large smelters where gold, silver, copper, and lead ores were treated. During the Great Depression , a series of hydroelectric dams were constructed along the Columbia River as part of a project to increase the production of electricity.
This culminated in with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam , the largest concrete structure in the United States and the largest dam in the world at its construction. During World War II, the state became a focus for war industries. While the Boeing Company produced many heavy bombers , ports in Seattle, Bremerton , Vancouver , and Tacoma were available for the manufacture of warships. Seattle was the point of departure for many soldiers in the Pacific, several whom were quartered at Discovery Park.
The early diversification of Washington through the Great Migration led to successful efforts at reducing discrimination in the workplace. At the U. In , the state was one of only four U. Wade which loosened abortion laws nationwide. On May 18, , following a period of heavy tremors and small eruptions, the north face of Mount St.
Helens slid off in the largest landslide in recorded history before erupting violently , destroying a large part of the top of the volcano. The eruption flattened the forest up to 20 km north of the volcano , killed 57 people, flooded the Columbia River and its tributaries with ash and mud, and blanketed large parts of Washington eastward and other surrounding states in ash, making day look like night.
Washington is the northwesternmost state of the contiguous United States. Oregon is to the south, with the Columbia River forming the western part and the 46th parallel forming the eastern part of the Oregon—Washington border. During Washington’s partition from Oregon, the original plan for the border followed the Columbia River east until the confluence with the Snake, and then would have followed the Snake River east; this was changed to keep Walla Walla ‘s fertile farmland in Washington.
To the west of Washington lies the Pacific Ocean. Washington is part of a region known as the Pacific Northwest , a term which always refers to at least Washington and Oregon, and may or may not include some or all the following, depending on the user’s intent: Idaho, western Montana , northern California , British Columbia, and Alaska.
The high mountains of the Cascade Range run north-south, bisecting the state. In addition to Western Washington and Eastern Washington , residents call the two parts of the state the «Westside» and the «Eastside», «Wet side» and «Dry side», or «Timberland» and «Wheatland», the latter pair more commonly in the names of region-specific businesses and institutions.
These terms reflect the geography, climate, and industry of the land on both sides of the Cascades. From the Cascade Mountains westward, Western Washington has a mostly Mediterranean climate , with mild temperatures and wet winters, autumns and springs, and relatively dry summers.
The Cascade Range has several volcanoes , which reach altitudes significantly higher than the rest of the mountains. Helens , and Mount Adams. All are active volcanoes. Mount Rainier—the tallest mountain in the state—  is 50 miles 80 km south of the city of Seattle, from which it is prominently visible. The U. Geological Survey considers 14,foot-tall 4, m Mount Rainier the most dangerous volcano in the Cascade Range, due to its proximity to the Seattle metropolitan area , and most dangerous in the continental U.
Western Washington also is home of the Olympic Mountains , far west on the Olympic Peninsula , which support dense forests of conifers and areas of temperate rainforest. These deep forests, such as the Hoh Rainforest , are among the only rainforests in the continental United States. Eastern Washington —the part of the state east of the Cascades—has a relatively dry climate, in distinct contrast to the west side.
It includes large areas of semiarid steppe and a few truly arid deserts in the rain shadow of the Cascades; the Hanford reservation receives an average annual precipitation of 6 to 7 inches to mm. Despite the limited amount of rainfall, agriculture is an extremely important business throughout much of Eastern Washington, as the soil is highly productive and irrigation , aided by dams along the Columbia River, is fairly widespread.
The main cities are all located alongside rivers or lakes; most of them are named after the river or lake they adjoin. Farther east, the climate becomes less arid, with annual rainfall increasing as one goes east to The Palouse southeast region of Washington was grassland that has been mostly converted into farmland, and extends to the Blue Mountains. Major factors determining Washington’s climate include the large semi-permanent high pressure and low pressure systems of the north Pacific Ocean, the continental air masses of North America, and the Olympic and Cascade mountains.
In the spring and summer, a high-pressure anticyclone system dominates the north Pacific Ocean, causing air to spiral out in a clockwise fashion. For Washington, this means prevailing winds from the northwest bring relatively cool air and a predictably dry season. In the autumn and winter, a low-pressure cyclone system takes over in the north Pacific Ocean. The air spiraling inward in a counter-clockwise fashion causes Washington’s prevailing winds to come from the southwest, and bring relatively warm and moist air masses and a predictably wet season.
The term » Pineapple Express » is used colloquially to describe atmospheric river events, where repeated storm systems are directed by this persistent cyclone from tropical and near-tropical Pacific regions into the Pacific Northwest. Despite Western Washington’s marine climate similar to many coastal cities of Europe, there are exceptions such as the «Big Snow» events of , , , and ,   and the «deep freeze» winters of —, —, —, and —, among others.
The Southern Oscillation greatly influences weather during the cold season. In , the Climate Impacts Group at the University of Washington published The Impacts of Climate change in Washington’s Economy , a preliminary assessment of the risks and opportunities presented given the possibility of a rise in global temperatures and their effects on Washington state. Rainfall in Washington varies dramatically going from east to west.
The Olympic Peninsula’s western side receives as much as inches 4, mm of precipitation annually, making it the wettest area of the 48 conterminous states and a temperate rainforest. Weeks may pass without a clear day. The western slopes of the Cascade Range receive some of the heaviest annual snowfall in some places more than inches or 5, millimeters water equivalent in the country. In the rain shadow area east of the Cascades, the annual precipitation is only 6 inches mm.
Precipitation then increases again eastward toward the Rocky Mountains about miles km east of the Idaho border. The Olympic mountains and Cascades compound this climatic pattern by causing orographic lift of the air masses blown inland from the Pacific Ocean, resulting in the windward side of the mountains receiving high levels of precipitation and the leeward side receiving low levels.
This occurs most dramatically around the Olympic Mountains and the Cascade Range. In both cases, the windward slopes facing southwest receive high precipitation and mild, cool temperatures. While the Puget Sound lowlands are known for clouds and rain in the winter, the western slopes of the Cascades receive larger amounts of precipitation, often falling as snow at higher elevations.
In , it set the world record for snowfall in a single season—1, inches 95 ft; 29 m. East of the Cascades, a large region experiences strong rain shadow effects.
Semi-arid conditions occur in much of Eastern Washington with the strongest rain shadow effects at the relatively low elevations of the central Columbia Plateau —especially the region just east of the Columbia River from about the Snake River to the Okanagan Highland. Thus, instead of rain forests, much of Eastern Washington is covered with dry grassland , shrub-steppe , and dunes. Western Washington is known for its mild climate, considerable fog, frequent cloud cover, long-lasting drizzles in the winter and warm, temperate summers.
The eastern region, which does not benefit from the general moderating effect of the Pacific Ocean, occasionally experiences extreme climate. Arctic cold fronts in the winter and heat waves in the summer are not uncommon. Forests cover about half the state’s land area, mostly west of the northern Cascades. Approximately two-thirds of Washington’s forested area is publicly owned, including 64 percent of federal land.
The Pacific shore surrounding the San Juan Islands is heavily inhabited by killer , gray, and humpback whales. In Eastern Washington, the flora is vastly different. Tumbleweeds and sagebrush dominate the landscape throughout large parts of the countryside. Russian olives and other trees are common alongside riverbanks; however, apart from the riversides, large swaths of Eastern Washington have no naturally existing trees at all though many trees have been planted and are irrigated by people, of course.
A wider variety of flora can be found in both the Blue Mountains and the eastern sides of the Cascades. Mammals native to the state include the bat , black bear , bobcat , cougar , coyote , deer , elk , gray wolf , hare , moose , mountain beaver , muskrat , opossum , pocket gopher , rabbit , raccoon , river otter , skunk , and tree squirrel.
This range includes raptors, shorebirds, woodland birds, grassland birds, ducks, and others. There are five species of salmon that ascend the Western Washington area, from streams to spawn.
Washington has a variety of National Park Service units. Almost 95 percent , acres, , hectares, 3, It is managed together as the Okanogan— Wenatchee National Forest , encompassing a considerably larger area of around 3,, acres 1,, ha. There are 39 counties within the state, and incorporated municipalities which are divided into cities and towns.
Washington’s population was 7,, in the census ,  a As of the Census, the population of Washington was 6,, Washington’s proportion of residents under the age of five was 6. According to the American Community Survey , In , Note: Births in table don’t add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
While the population of African Americans in the Pacific Northwest is relatively scarce overall, they are mostly concentrated in the South End and Central District areas of Seattle, and in inner Tacoma. The westernmost and Pacific coasts have primarily American Indian communities, such as the Chinook , Lummi , and Salish. Urban Indian communities formed by the U. The city was named for Chief Seattle in the very early s when European Americans settled the sound.
Seattle, Bellevue , and Redmond , which are all within King County, have sizable Chinese communities including Taiwanese , as well as significant Indian and Japanese communities.
The Chinatown-International District in Seattle has a historical Chinese population dating back to the s, who mainly emigrated from Guangdong Province in southern China, and is home to a diverse East and Southeast Asian community. Koreans are heavily concentrated in the suburban cities of Federal Way and Auburn to the south, and in Lynnwood to the north.
Tacoma is home to thousands of Cambodians , and has one of the largest Cambodian-American communities in the United States, along with Long Beach, California , and Lowell, Massachusetts.
They were reported to at least date as far back as the s. Additionally, Washington has a large Ethiopian community, with many Eritrean residents as well. In total, Major religious affiliations of the people of Washington are: . The largest denominations by number of adherents in were the Roman Catholic Church , with ,; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , with ,;  and the Assemblies of God , with , Aquarian Tabernacle Church is the largest Wiccan church in the country.
Like other West Coast states, the percentage of Washington’s population identifying themselves as » non-religious » is higher than the national average. Significant business within the state include the design and manufacture of aircraft Boeing , automotive Paccar , computer software development Microsoft , Bungie , Amazon , Nintendo of America , Valve , ArenaNet , telecom T-Mobile US , electronics , biotechnology , aluminum production, lumber and wood products Weyerhaeuser , mining, beverages Starbucks , Jones Soda , real estate John L.
Also, significant amounts of trade with Asia pass through the ports of the Puget Sound, leading to a number six ranking of U. As of July [update] , the state’s unemployment rate was 3. The state of Washington is one of seven states that do not levy a personal income tax.
The state does not collect a corporate income tax or franchise tax either. Washington’s state base sales tax is 6. The combined state and local retail sales tax rates increase the taxes paid by consumers, depending on the variable local sales tax rates, generally between 7.
However, prepared foods, dietary supplements , and soft drinks remain taxable. An excise tax applies to certain products such as gasoline, cigarettes, and alcoholic beverages. It continues to be the most important revenue source for public schools , fire protection, libraries , parks and recreation, and other special-purpose districts.
All real property and personal property are subject to tax unless specifically exempted by law. Most personal property owned by individuals is exempt from tax. Personal property tax applies to personal property used when conducting business, or to other personal property not exempt by law.
All property taxes are paid to the county treasurer’s office where the property is located. Neither does the state assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state.
Washington does not collect inheritance taxes. However, the estate tax is de-coupled from the federal estate tax laws, and therefore, the state imposes its estate tax. Washington state has the 18th highest per capita effective tax rate in the United States , as of This leads to border economic anomalies in the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area. Washington is a leading agricultural state. Washington also ranked second in the nation in the production of fall potatoes a quarter of the nation’s production , nectarines , apricots , asparagus, all raspberries, grapes all varieties taken together , sweet corn for processing a quarter of the nation’s production , and summer onions a fifth of the nation’s production.
Washington also ranked third in the nation in the production of dried peas, lentils, onions, and peppermint oil. The apple industry is of particular importance to Washington. Because of the favorable climate of dry, warm summers and cold winters of central Washington, the state has led the U.
Washington ranks second in the United States in the production of wine, behind only California. By , that number had grown to wineries. Viticulture in the state is also influenced by long sunlight hours on average, two more hours a day than in California during the growing season and consistent temperatures. Washington’s state transportation system comprises several modes that are maintained by various government entities.
The state highway system, called State Routes , includes over 7, miles 11, km of roads and the Washington State Ferries system, the largest of its kind in the nation  and the third largest in the world. There are also 57, miles 92, km of local roads maintained by cities and counties, as well as several ferries operated by local governments.
There are extensive waterways around Washington’s largest cities, including Seattle, Bellevue , Tacoma, and Olympia. The state highways incorporate an extensive network of bridges and the largest ferry system in the United States to serve transportation needs in the Puget Sound area. Washington’s marine highway constitutes a fleet of twenty-eight ferries that navigate Puget Sound and its inland waterways to 20 different ports of call, completing close to , sailings each year.
Washington is home to four of the five longest floating bridges in the world: the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge , Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge and Homer M. Among its most famous bridges is the Tacoma Narrows Bridge , which collapsed in and was rebuilt. Washington has 75 port districts,  including several major seaports on the Pacific Ocean. The Cascade Mountain Range also impedes transportation.
Washington operates and maintains roads over seven [ vague ] major mountain passes and eight minor passes. During the winter months, some of these passes are plowed, sanded, and kept safe with avalanche control. Not all stay open through the winter. The Cayuse and Chinook passes east of Mount Rainier also close in winter.
Washington is crossed by several freight railroads , and Amtrak’s passenger Cascade route between Eugene, Oregon, and Vancouver, BC is the eighth busiest Amtrak service in the U. The Sounder commuter rail service operates in Seattle and its surrounding cities, between Everett and Lakewood. Sound Transit Link light rail currently operates in the Seattle area at a length of 20 miles 32 km , and in Tacoma at a length of 1.
The entire system has a funded expansion plan that will expand light rail to a total of miles by Seattle also has a 3. Hanford Nuclear Reservation is currently the most contaminated nuclear site in the United States  and is the focus of the nation’s largest environmental cleanup. In , Washington became the first state in the nation to target all forms of highly toxic brominated flame retardants known as PBDEs for elimination from the many common household products in which they are being used.
Three recent studies by the Washington State Department of Ecology showed toxic chemicals banned decades ago linger in the environment and concentrate in the food chain. In one of the studies, state government scientists found unacceptable levels of toxic substances in 93 samples of freshwater fish from 45 sites. As a result of the study, the department will investigate the sources of PCBs in the Wenatchee River, where unhealthy levels of PCBs were found in mountain whitefish.
Based on the information and a previous Ecology study, the Washington State Department of Health advises the public not to eat mountain whitefish from the Wenatchee River from Leavenworth downstream to where the river joins the Columbia, due to unhealthy levels of PCBs.
Study results also showed high levels of contaminants in fish tissue that scientists collected from Lake Washington and the Spokane River, where fish consumption advisories are already in effect.
This bill would limit phosphorus content in dishwashing detergents statewide to 0. Though the ban would be effective statewide in , it would take place in Whatcom County , Spokane County , and Clark County in An invasive amount of algae in bodies of water would lead to a variety of excess ecological and technological issues. Washington’s executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term.
The current statewide elected officials are:. The bicameral Washington State Legislature is the state’s legislative branch. The state legislature is composed of a lower House of Representatives and an upper State Senate. The state is divided into 49 legislative districts of equal population, each of which elects two representatives and one senator.
Representatives serve two-year terms, while senators serve for four years. There are no term limits. The Democratic Party has a majority in the House and Senate. The Washington Supreme Court is the highest court in the state. Nine justices serve on the bench and are elected statewide.
Murray has represented the state since , while Cantwell was first elected in The state is one of four with two female senators.
Due to Congressional redistricting as a result of the Census , Washington gained one seat in the United States House of Representatives. With the extra seat, Washington also gained one electoral vote, raising its total to The state is typically thought of as politically divided by the Cascade Mountains, with Western Washington being liberal particularly the I-5 Corridor and Eastern Washington being conservative.
Washington has voted for the Democratic presidential nominee in every election since Although the Eastern half of the state votes heavily Republican , the overwhelming Democratic dominance in the Seattle metropolitan area has turned Washington into a reliably blue state. Michael Dukakis narrowly won Washington in , and Democrats have won the state in every presidential election since, and by safe margins since Washington was considered a key swing state in , and it was the only western state to give its electoral votes to Democratic nominee Hubert Humphrey over his Republican opponent Richard Nixon.
Washington was considered a part of the Republican Revolution , and had the biggest pick-up in the house for Republicans, who picked up seven of Washington’s nine House seats. The governorship is held by Democrat Jay Inslee , who was elected to his first term in the gubernatorial election and, after the election, became the first incumbent in more than 40 years to be elected for a third term.
The state senate was under Republican control, due to two Democrats’ joining Republicans to form the Majority Coalition Caucus. After the elections, the Democrats retained control of the House, while Republicans took a majority in the Senate without the need for a coalition. In November , a special election gave Democrats a one-seat majority in the Senate and complete control over state government.
Since then, in the election, the Democrats have only expanded their majorities. No state has gone longer without a Republican governor than Washington. Democrats have controlled the Washington Governor’s Mansion for 37 years; the last Republican Governor was John Spellman , who left office in Washington has not voted for a Republican senator, governor, or presidential candidate since , tying Delaware for the longest streak in the country.
Washington uses the non-partisan blanket primary system after the approval of Initiative in This has resulted in several same-party general election match-ups.
In a study, Washington was ranked as the second easiest state for citizens to vote in. Washington is one of the ten states to have legalized assisted suicide.
In the Washington Death with Dignity Act ballot initiative passed and became law. In November , Washington voters approved full domestic partnerships via Referendum 71 , marking the first time voters in any state expanded recognition of same-sex relationships at the ballot box. Three years later, in November , same-sex marriage was affirmed via Referendum 74 , making Washington one of only three states to have approved same-sex marriage by popular vote.
Also in November , Washington was one of the first two states to approve the legal sale and possession of cannabis for both recreational and medical use with Initiative Although marijuana is still illegal under U. In November , voters approved Initiative , which among other things requires employers to guarantee paid sick leave to most workers. On January 1, , the law went into effect, with Washington becoming the seventh state with paid sick leave requirements.
With the passage of Initiative in the elections, Washington adopted stricter gun laws. Washington enacted a measure in May in favor of sanctuary cities , similar to California and Oregon laws which are among the strongest statewide mandates in the nation. In the legislature passed the Clean Energy Transformation Act, which requires all electricity sales to be from zero-carbon sources by and net-zero by As of the — school year, 1,, students were enrolled in elementary and secondary schools in Washington, with 67, teachers employed to educate them.
High school juniors and seniors in Washington have the option of using the state’s Running Start program. Begun by the state legislature in , it allows students to attend institutions of higher education at public expense, simultaneously earning high school and college credit. There are more than 40 institutions of higher education in Washington. The state has major research universities, technical schools, religious schools, and private career colleges.
The top two health insurers as of were Premera Blue Cross , with 24 percent market share, followed by Kaiser Permanente at 21 percent. The state of Washington reformed its health care system in through the Washington Health Services Act. The legislation required individuals to obtain health insurance or face penalties, and required employers to provide insurance to employees. In addition, health insurance companies were required to sell policies to all individuals, regardless of pre-existing conditions, and cover basic benefits.
Hospitals exist across the state, but many of Washington’s best-known medical facilities are located in and around Seattle. Joseph Medical Center. Pickleball , a racquet sport invented on Bainbridge Island in , was designated as Washington’s official state sport in In addition, the U.
Previous ships had held that name in honor of George Washington. Conover of Seattle. The name proved popular as the forests were full of evergreen trees and the abundance of rain keeps the shrubbery and grasses green throughout the year.
The state song is » Washington, My Home «, the state bird is the American goldfinch , the state fruit is the apple, and the state vegetable is the Walla Walla sweet onion. The state tree is the western hemlock. The state flower is the coast rhododendron.
The state fish is the steelhead. The unofficial, but popularly accepted, state rock song is Louie Louie. The state insect is the green darner dragonfly.
The state gem is petrified wood. The state fossil is the Columbian mammoth. The state marine mammal is the orca. The state soil is Tokul soil. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the proposed statehood of Washington, D. For the university, see Washington State University. For other uses, see Washington State disambiguation.
State in the United States. Al-ki or Alki, «by and by» in Chinook Jargon. Mount Rainier. Main article: History of Washington state. Within the city, the National Mall serves as the center of the tourism industry. It is there that many of the city’s museums and monuments are located. Adjacent to the mall sits the Tidal Basin , where several additional memorials and monuments lie, including the popular Jefferson Memorial.
Additionally, Union Station is a very popular tourist spot with its multitude of restaurants and shops. It is also the location of President John F. Kennedy ‘s tomb, marked by an eternal flame. The changing of the guard is a popular tourist attraction and occurs once every hour from October through March and every half-hour during the rest of the year.
Given its prominence, the mall is often the location of political protests , concerts, festivals, and presidential inaugurations. Located on the mall directly northwest of the Washington Monument is Constitution Gardens , which serves as a memorial to the signers of the United States Declaration of Independence.
Directly south of the mall, the Tidal Basin features rows of Japanese cherry trees. Every spring, millions of cherry blossoms bloom, an event which attracts visitors from across the world as part of the annual National Cherry Blossom Festival. Numerous historic landmarks are located outside the National Mall. The National Archives is headquartered in a building just north of the National Mall and houses thousands of documents important to American history, including the Declaration of Independence , the Constitution , and the Bill of Rights.
Chinatown is located just north of the National Mall. It houses many Chinese-inspired restaurants and shops as well as Capital One Arena , which serves as the primary indoor sports and entertainment arena in Washington. Chinatown’s Friendship Archway is one of the largest Chinese ceremonial archways outside of China. The Archway bears the Chinese characters for Chinatown below the roof.
The Southwest Waterfront along the Potomac River has been redeveloped in recent years and now serves as a popular cultural center. This is the oldest fish market currently in operation in the entire United States. Several other landmarks are located in neighboring Northern Virginia. There are also numerous parks, gardens, and squares that have become notable landmarks, such as Rock Creek Park. Rock Creek Park, located in Northwest D. Named after the Marquis de Lafayette , a Frenchman who served as a commander during the American Revolutionary War , the square has been the site of many protests, marches, and speeches over the decades.
Seward , who was stabbed by an intruder in his Lafayette Square house on the evening of President Lincoln’s assassination. Its most notable landmark is the National Capitol Columns monument. The island has many trails used by bikers, walkers, and runners, as well as a statue and memorial in honor of Theodore Roosevelt.
The Smithsonian Institution is an educational foundation chartered by Congress in that maintains most of the nation’s official museums and galleries in Washington, D. It is the world’s largest research and museum complex. Dillon Ripley Center ; and the Smithsonian Institution Building also known as «The Castle» , which serves as the institution’s headquarters. However, they are not a part of the Smithsonian Institution. Congress that is open to the public. There are many private art museums in the District of Columbia, which house major collections and exhibits open to the public, such as the National Museum of Women in the Arts and The Phillips Collection in Dupont Circle , the first museum of modern art in the United States.
The John F. The Kennedy Center Honors are awarded each year to those in the performing arts who have contributed greatly to the cultural life of the United States. This ceremony is often attended by the sitting American President as well as other dignitaries and celebrities.
The historic Ford’s Theatre , site of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln , continues to operate as a functioning performance space as well as a museum. The Marine Barracks near Capitol Hill houses the United States Marine Band ; founded in , it is the country’s oldest professional musical organization.
Founded in , Arena Stage achieved national attention and spurred growth in the city’s independent theater movement that now includes organizations such as the Shakespeare Theatre Company , Woolly Mammoth Theatre Company , and the Studio Theatre. Other performing arts spaces in the city include the Andrew W. The Folger Shakespeare Library is a research library and museum located in the Capitol Hill neighborhood. It houses the world’s largest collection of Shakespeare-related material  and third largest collection of English books printed before The district is an important center for indie culture and music in the United States.
The label Dischord Records , formed by Ian MacKaye , frontman of Fugazi , was one of the most crucial independent labels in the genesis of s punk and eventually indie rock in the s. Starting in the s, it is considered to be one of the most influential punk music movements in the country. Despite the cosmopolitan nature of the city, D.
Among the District’s signature restaurants is Ben’s Chili Bowl , which has been located on U Street since its founding in The restaurant rose to prominence as a peaceful escape during the violent race riots in the city. The restaurant is famous for its chili dogs and half-smokes. The restaurant has been visited by numerous presidents and celebrities over the years. The city’s growth as a fine dining location has garnered the attention of many celebrity chefs, who have opened restaurants in the city.
Washington is one of 13 cities in the United States with teams from all four major professional men’s sports and is home to one major professional women’s team. Elizabeths East Entertainment and Sports Arena. Nationals Park , which opened in Southeast D. United has won four;  and the Washington Wizards then the Washington Bullets , Washington Capitals, Washington Mystics and Washington Nationals have each won a single championship.
Australian Football League ; the D. The William H. Washington is also home to two major annual marathon races: the Marine Corps Marathon , which is held every autumn, and the Rock ‘n’ Roll USA Marathon held in the spring. The Marine Corps Marathon began in and is sometimes called «The People’s Marathon» because it is the largest marathon that does not offer prize money to participants.
The Georgetown Hoyas men’s basketball team is the most notable and also plays at the Capital One Arena. From to , the district hosted an annual college football bowl game at RFK Stadium , called the Military Bowl. The Washington Post , founded in , is the oldest and most-read local daily newspaper in Washington. The Atlantic magazine, which covers politics, international affairs, and cultural issues, is also headquartered in Washington.
Another popular local daily is The Washington Times , the city’s second general interest broadsheet and also an influential paper in conservative political circles. Some community and specialty papers focus on neighborhood and cultural issues, including the weekly Washington Blade and Metro Weekly , which focus on LGBT issues; the Washington Informer and The Washington Afro American , which highlight topics of interest to the black community; and neighborhood newspapers published by The Current Newspapers.
Congressional Quarterly , The Hill , Politico , and Roll Call newspapers focus exclusively on issues related to Congress and the federal government.
The headquarters of Voice of America , the U. The district did not have an elected local government until the passage of the Home Rule Act. The Act devolved certain Congressional powers to an elected mayor and the thirteen-member Council of the District of Columbia. However, Congress retains the right to review and overturn laws created by the council and intervene in local affairs. Each of the city’s eight wards elects a single member of the council and residents elect four at-large members to represent the district as a whole.
The council chair is also elected at-large. ANCs can issue recommendations on all issues that affect residents; government agencies take their advice under careful consideration. The idiom » Inside the Beltway » is a reference used by media to describe discussions of national political issues inside of Washington, by way of geographical demarcation regarding the region inner to the Capital’s Beltway, Interstate , the city’s highway loop beltway constructed in The phrase is used as a title for a number of political columns and news items by publications like the populist Washington Times.
The mayor and council set local taxes and a budget, which Congress must approve. Congress typically provides additional grants for federal programs such as Medicaid and the operation of the local justice system ; however, analysts claim that the payments do not fully resolve the imbalance. The city’s local government, particularly during the mayoralty of Marion Barry , was criticized for mismanagement and waste.
The district regained control over its finances in and the oversight board’s operations were suspended. The district has a federally funded «Emergency Planning and Security Fund» to cover security related to visits by foreign leaders and diplomats, presidential inaugurations, protests, and terrorism concerns. During the Trump administration, the fund has run with a deficit. The district is not a state and therefore has no voting representation in Congress.
At-Large , who may sit on committees, participate in debate, and introduce legislation, but cannot vote on the House floor. The district has no official representation in the United States Senate. Neither chamber seats the district’s elected «shadow» representative or senators. Unlike residents of U. Opponents of D. Those opposed to making D. Each of the listed cities is a national capital except for Sunderland, which includes the town of Washington , the ancestral home of George Washington’s family.
In the —11 school year, 46, students were enrolled in the public school system. Memorial Library. The Corcoran College of Art and Design , the oldest art school in the capital, was absorbed into the George Washington University in , now serving as its college of arts.
The University of the District of Columbia UDC is a public land-grant university providing undergraduate and graduate education.
In addition, the city is home to three medical schools and associated teaching hospitals at George Washington, Georgetown, and Howard universities. There are 1, miles 2, km of streets, parkways, and avenues in the district. Interstate 95 I , the nation’s major east coast highway, therefore bends around the district to form the eastern portion of the Capital Beltway. A portion of the proposed highway funding was directed to the region’s public transportation infrastructure instead.
Started in , it is one of the largest bicycle sharing systems in the country with more than 4, bicycles and more than stations,  all provided by PBSC Urban Solutions. By , the city’s network of marked bicycle lanes covered 56 miles 90 km of streets. There are multiple transportation methods to cross the city’s two rivers, the Potomac River and the Anacostia River. There are numerous bridges that take cars, trains, pedestrians, and bikers across the rivers. There are also ferries and water cruises that cross the Potomac River.
The system serves Washington, D. Metro opened on March 27, , and consists of six lines each one color coded , 91 stations , and miles km of track. Metro is known for its iconic brutalist-style vaulted ceilings in the interior stations. It is also known for having long escalators in some of its underground stations. The longest single-tier escalator in the Western Hemisphere, spanning feet 70 m , is located at Metro’s Wheaton station in Maryland.
Union Station is the city’s main train station and serves approximately 70, people each day. It is Amtrak ‘s second-busiest station with 4. Although Washington was famous throughout the 19th and early- to midth centuries for its streetcars , these lines were dismantled in the s. In , however, the city brought back a streetcar line. Two main public bus systems operate in Washington. Serving more than , riders each weekday, it is one of the nation’s largest bus systems by annual ridership.
The bus system services each stop approximately every 10 minutes. Many other public bus systems operate in the various jurisdictions of the Washington region outside of the city in suburban Maryland and Virginia. The city also sees many charter buses carrying young students and other tourists from across the country to the Washington region’s historic sites.
These buses are often found parked beside famous tourist locations, such as the National Mall. Three major airports serve the district, though none are within the city’s borders. Two of these major airports are located in suburban Virginia and one in suburban Maryland. This airport is primarily reserved for domestic flights and has the lowest number of passengers of any of the three airports in the region.
The busiest by international flights and the largest by land size and amount of facilities is Washington Dulles International Airport , located in suburban Virginia, about 24 miles west of the city. The President of the United States does not use these airports for travel.
There, he takes Air Force One to his destination. The air base was originally built in Water is an independent authority of the D. The water, sourced from the Potomac River, is treated and stored in the city’s Dalecarlia , Georgetown , and McMillan reservoirs.
The aqueduct provides drinking water for a total of 1. Pepco is the city’s electric utility and services , customers in the district and suburban Maryland. As a result, all power lines and telecommunication cables are located underground in downtown Washington, and traffic signals are placed at the edge of the street. Washington Gas is the city’s natural gas utility and serves more than a million customers in the district and its suburbs.
Incorporated by Congress in , the company installed the city’s first gas lights in the Capitol, the White House, and along Pennsylvania Avenue. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Capital city of the United States. Several terms redirect here. For other uses, see District of Columbia disambiguation and United States capital disambiguation. Federal capital city and federal district in the United States. Federal capital city and federal district. Justitia Omnibus English: Justice for All. Main article: History of Washington, D. For a chronological guide, see Timeline of Washington, D.
For the capitals of the United States before the founding of Washington, D. Main article: War of See also: District of Columbia retrocession and Washington, D. See also: District of Columbia home rule. Main article: Geography of Washington, D.
See also: Climate change in Washington, D. Climate data for Washington, D. See also: Streets and highways of Washington, D. Main article: Demographics of Washington, D. Notable religious buildings in Washington, D. John’s Episcopal Church. Main article: Crime in Washington, D. See also: List of law enforcement agencies in the District of Columbia.
See also the categories Companies based in Washington, D. See also: Category:Non-profit organizations based in Washington, D. See also: List of companies headquartered in Northern Virginia. Main article: Culture of Washington, D. See also: List of museums in Washington, D. Main articles: Theater in Washington, D. See also: List of Michelin starred restaurants in Washington, D. Main article: Sports in Washington, D. Main article: Media in Washington, D.
See also: List of newspapers in Washington, D. Main article: Government of the District of Columbia. See also: List of parochial and private schools in Washington, D. See also: List of colleges and universities in Washington, D. Main article: Transportation in Washington, D. Cities portal United States portal. The Northern states had not, and wanted the federal government to take over their outstanding liabilities.
Southern Congressmen agreed to the plan in return for establishing the new national capital at their preferred site on the Potomac River. However, Washington shifted the federal territory’s borders to the southeast and rotated them to include the city of Alexandria at the District’s southern tip.
In , Congress amended the Residence Act to approve the new site, including territory ceded by Virginia. For D. The data provided in this article from before are calculated as if the District of Columbia were a single municipality as it is today. Population data for each city prior to are available. DC Watch. Archived from the original on February 19, Retrieved February 7, United States Census Bureau.
Archived from the original on August 23, Retrieved August 20, Archived from the original on August 24, Retrieved August 22, Archived from the original on May 21, Retrieved April 12, Archived from the original on April 13, Liu July 14, Archived from the original on October 14, Retrieved July 14, Archived from the original on July 4, Retrieved February 24, History F. May 27, Archived from the original on September 10, Retrieved March 7, February 18, The Washington Post.
Archived from the original on August 10, Retrieved October 18, Archived from the original on March 7, Retrieved March 6, Washington Business Journal. Archived from the original on June 16, Statehood, but Senate Obstacles Remain». The New York Times. ISSN Archived from the original on April 23, Retrieved April 23, The Atlantic.
Archived from the original on January 18, Retrieved November 23, Census Bureau. Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on April 19, April Retrieved April 18, George Washington University.
ISBN Archived from the original on January 26, Journals of the Continental Congress. Library of Congress : American Memory : October The Independent Journal.
Library of Congress. Archived from the original on September 14, Retrieved September 5, Washington Becomes The Capital». Centennial History of the City of Washington, D. Archived from the original on November 18, Retrieved June 16, National Archives and Records Administration. Archived from the original on August 19, Retrieved July 22, National Park Service. Archived from the original on July 2, Retrieved July 5, Alexandria Historical Society.
Archived from the original on April 4, Retrieved April 4, Washington: the making of the American capital. Archived from the original on September 5, Archived from the original on December 17, Retrieved May 27, Retrieved June 1, Archived from the original on September 18, Retrieved July 11, United States Senate. February 14, Archived from the original on July 5, Called the District of Columbia? Ghosts of DC. Archived from the original on February 20, Retrieved February 20, Permanent Capital Site Selected».
American Bar Association. September 14, Archived PDF from the original on October 16, Retrieved August 10, White House Historical Association. Retrieved February 21, Architect of the Capitol.
Archived from the original on December 10, Retrieved December 2, Washington History : 54— Archived from the original PDF on January 18, Retrieved January 16, Chicago: G.
September 21, Archived from the original on September 3, Retrieved July 24, The government of the District of Columbia. Office of the Secretary. Archived from the original on October 23, Retrieved May 12, September 13, Archived from the original PDF on August 4, Retrieved August 13, Statutes at Large, 41st Congress, 3rd Session. Archived from the original on January 20, Retrieved July 10, Great cities in America: their problems and their government.
The Macmillan Company. Johns Hopkins University Press. Origin and government of the District of Columbia. Government Printing Office. Planning for Disaster. History of American Architecture. Manchester University Press. Arcadia Publishing.
Archived from the original on September 6, CRS Annotated Constitution. Archived from the original on August 30, Retrieved August 28, Pierre April 6, Archived from the original on May 4, Retrieved June 6, Government of the District of Columbia. February Archived from the original on August 26, Retrieved November 29, June Archived PDF from the original on June 18, Retrieved December 22, Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin.
Archived from the original on August 13, Retrieved March 31, Records of the Columbia Historical Society. JSTOR Archived from the original on June 11, Retrieved July 3, Retrieved February 25, Highroad Guide to the Chesapeake Bay.
John F. United States Geological Survey. July 30, Archived from the original on June 27, Retrieved July 7, High school students from all nine of the state’s educational service districts ESDs participate in this artistic celebration each year. The beauty of Washington is undeniable. Are you ready to explore this spring and summer? The Washington State Tourism website will help you plan your adventures. SecureAccess Washington is a tool to get access to all online state government services in one place.
Use a single login to access services including licensing, employment security, and paid leave. Learn how to use SAW.
Washington State Ferries | WSDOT.
George Washington February 22, [b] — December 14was an American military officer, statesman, and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from to Appointed by Washington – Washington: Continental Congress as commander is hobart and william smith colleges a good school – is hobart and william smith colleges a good sch the Continental ArmyWashington led the Patriot forces to victory in the American Revolutionary War and served as the president of the Constitutional Convention ofwhich created the Constitution of the United States and Смотрите подробнее American federal government.
Washington has been called the » Father of the Nation » for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the country. Washington’s first public office was serving as the official surveyor of Culpeper County, Virginia from to Subsequently, he received his initial military training as well as a command Washington – Washington: the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War.
He was later elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress where he was appointed Commanding General of the Continental Army. With Washington – Washington: title, he commanded American forces allied with France in the defeat and surrender of the British at the Siege of Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War.
He resigned his commission after the Treaty of Paris was signed in Washington played an indispensable role in adopting and ratifying the Constitution of the Washington – Washington: States, which was a replacement of the original constitution, the Articles of Confederation. He was then twice elected president by the Electoral College unanimously. As president, he implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton.
During the French Revolutionhe proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty. He set enduring precedents for the office of president, including Washingtton: title » Mr. President «, and swearing the Oath of Office on the Bible. His Farewell Address is widely regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington was a slave owner who had a complicated relationship with slavery. During his lifetime he controlled a cumulative total of over slaves, who were forced to work on his Washington – Washington: and wherever he lived, including the President’s Washington – Washington: in Philadelphia.
As Washington – Washington:, he signed laws passed by Congress that both protected and curtailed slavery. His will said that one of /4589.txt slaves, William Leeshould be freed upon his death and that the other slaves must work for his wife and be freed on her death.
She freed them during her lifetime to remove the incentive Washington – Washington: hastening her death. He endeavored to assimilate Native Americans into the Anglo-American culture.
However, he waged military campaigns against hostile Native American nations during the Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian War. He was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasonsand he urged broad religious freedom in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, Washintton: was eulogized by Henry «Light-Horse Harry» Lee as «first Washington – Washington: war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his Wsshington.
Washington has been memorialized by monuments, a federal holidayvarious media depictionsgeographical Washinhton:, including the national capitalthe State of WashingtonstampsWashington – Washington: currencyand many scholars and Washington – Washington: Americans alike rank him among the greatest U. The Washington family was a wealthy Virginia planter family that had made its fortune through land speculation and the cultivation of tobacco. Washington did not have the formal education his elder brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but did attend the Lower Church Washingtonn: in Hartfield.
He learned mathematics, trigonometry, and нажмите чтобы увидеть больше surveying and became a talented draftsman and map-maker. By early adulthood, he was writing with «considerable force» and «precision»;  however, his writing displayed Wasnington: wit or Washington – Washington:. In pursuit of admiration, status, and power, he tended to attribute his shortcomings and failures to someone else’s ineffectuality.
Washington Washington – Washington: visited Mount Vernon and Belvoirthe plantation that belonged to Lawrence’s father-in-law William Fairfax. Fairfax became Washington’s patron and surrogate father, and Washington spent Waashington: month in with a Wshington surveying Fairfax’s Shenandoah Valley property.
InWashington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbadoshoping the climate would cure his brother’s tuberculosis. Lawrence Washington’s service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired his half-brother George to Washington – Washington: a commission.
Virginia’s lieutenant governor, Robert Dinwiddieappointed George Washington as a major and commander of one of the four militia districts. The British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley. While the British were constructing forts along the Ohio River, Washingtonn French were doing the same—constructing forts between the Ohio River and Lake Erie.
In OctoberDinwiddie appointed Washington as Washington – Washington: special envoy. He had sent George to demand French forces to vacate land that was being claimed by the British. Washington Wwshington: given the nickname Conotocaurius town destroyer or devourer of villages by Tanacharison. The nickname had previously been given to his great-grandfather John Washington in the late seventeenth century by the Susquehannock. Washington’s party reached the Ohio River in Novemberand were intercepted by a French patrol.
The party was escorted to Fort Le Boeufwhere Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to the French commander Saint-Pierrebut the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington нажмите для деталей official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days’ delay, as well as food and extra winter clothing for his party’s journey back to Virginia.
In FebruaryDinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the strong Virginia Regimentwith orders to confront French forces at the Forks of the Ohio.
In May, having set up a defensive position at Great Meadows, he learned that the French had made camp seven miles 11 km away; he decided to take the offensive. The French detachment proved to be only about fifty men, so Washington advanced on May 28 with a small force of Virginians and Indian allies to ambush them.
Washington – Washington: commander Joseph Coulon de Jumonvillewho carried a diplomatic message for the British to evacuate, Washimgton killed. French forces found Jumonville and some of his men dead and scalped and assumed Washington was responsible.
The full Virginia Regiment Washington – Washington: Washington at Fort Necessity the following month with news that he had been promoted to command Washington – Washington: the regiment and colonel upon the regimental commander’s death. The regiment was reinforced by an independent Wasjington: of a hundred South Carolinians led by Captain James Mackaywhose royal commission outranked Washington – Washington: of Washington, and a conflict of command ensued.
On July 3, a French force attacked with men, and the ensuing battle ended in Washington’s surrender. Two-thirds of the British force became casualties, including the mortally wounded Braddock.
Under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Washington – Washington: Gage, Washington, still very ill, rallied the survivors and formed a rear guard, allowing the remnants of the force to disengage and retreat. The Virginia Regiment Washington – Washington: reconstituted in Augustand Dinwiddie appointed Washington its commander, again with the rank of colonel. Washington clashed over seniority almost immediately, this time with John Dagworthyanother captain of superior royal rank, who commanded a detachment of Marylanders at the regiment’s headquarters in Fort Cumberland.
Shirley ruled in Washington’s favor only in the matter of Dagworthy; Loudoun humiliated Washington, refused him a royal commission and agreed only to relieve him of the responsibility Washinyton manning Fort Cumberland.
The French abandoned the fort and the valley before the assault was launched; Washington saw only a friendly fire Washington – Washington: which left 14 dead and 26 injured. The war lasted another four years, and Washington resigned his commission and returned to Mount Vernon.
Under Washington, the Virginia Regiment had defended miles km of frontier against twenty Indian attacks in ten months.
Some historians have said this was Washington’s «only unqualified success» during the war. The destructive competition Washington witnessed among colonial politicians fostered his later support of a best to in asheville north carolina Washington – Washington: government.
The marriage took place at Martha’s estate; she was intelligent, gracious, and experienced in managing a planter’s estate, and the couple created a happy marriage. Washington’s bout with smallpox is thought to have rendered him sterile, though Washingtob: is equally likely that «Martha may have sustained injury during the birth of Patsy, her final child, making additional births impossible. The marriage gave Washington control over Martha’s one-third dower Washigton: in the 18,acre 7, ha Custis estateand he managed the remaining two-thirds for Martha’s children; the estate also included 84 slaves.
He became one of Virginia’s wealthiest men, which increased his social standing. At Washington’s urging, Governor Lord Botetourt fulfilled Dinwiddie’s promise of land bounties to all-volunteer militia during the French and Indian War. Crawford allotted 23, acres 9, ha to Washington; Washington told the veterans that their land was hilly and unsuitable for farming, and he agreed to purchase 20, acres 8, haleaving some feeling they had been duped.
Washington’s political activities included supporting the candidacy of his friend George William Fairfax in his bid to represent Washington – Washington: region in the Virginia House of Burgesses. This support led to a dispute which resulted in a physical altercation between Washington and another Virginia planter, William Payne. Washington defused the situation, including ordering officers from the Virginia Regiment to stand down.
Washington apologized to Payne the following day at a tavern. Payne had been expecting to be challenged to a duel. As a respected military hero Wasnington: large landowner, Washington held local Washingtpn: and was elected to the Virginia provincial legislature, representing Frederick County in the House of Burgesses for seven years beginning in He rarely spoke in his early legislative career, but he became a prominent critic of Britain’s taxation policy and mercantilist policies towards the Washington – Washington: colonies Washingtn: in the s.
By occupation, Washington was a planter, and he imported luxuries and other Washington – Washington: from England, paying for them by exporting tobacco. Washington soon was counted among the political and social elite in Virginia.
From tohe invited some 2, guests to his Mount Vernon estate, mostly those whom he considered people of rank, and was known to be exceptionally cordial toward his guests. Washington’s step-daughter Patsy Custis suffered from epileptic attacks from age 12, and she died in his arms in The following day, he wrote to Burwell Bassett : «It is easier to conceive, than to describe, the distress of this Family». Washington played a central role before and during the Коненечно washington county fair ri 2021 schedule этим Revolution.
His disdain for the British military had begun when he was passed over for promotion into the Regular Army. Opposed to taxes imposed by the British Parliament Washinggton the Colonies without proper representation he and other colonists were also angered by the Royal Proclamation of which banned American settlement west of the Allegheny Mountains and protected the British fur trade. Washington believed the Stamp Act of was an «Act of Oppression», and he celebrated its repeal the following year.
Parliament sought to punish Massachusetts читать далее for their role in the Boston Tea Party in by passing the Coercive Actswhich Washington referred to as «an Wasuington: of our rights and privileges». Congress created the Continental Army on June 14,and Samuel and John Adams nominated Washington to become its commander-in-chief. Washington was chosen over John Hancock because of his military experience and the belief that a Virginian would better unite the colonies.
He was considered an incisive leader who kept his «ambition in check». Washington appeared before Congress in uniform and gave an acceptance speech on June 16, declining Washinfton: salary—though he was later reimbursed expenses. He was commissioned on June 19 and was roundly praised by Congressional delegates, including John Adams, who proclaimed that he was the man best suited to lead and unite the colonies.
Henry Knox impressed Adams with ordnance knowledge, and Washington promoted him to colonel and chief of artillery. At the start of the war, Washington opposed the recruiting of blacks, both free and enslaved, into the Continental Army. After his appointment, Washington banned Washington – Washington: enlistment. The British saw an opportunity to divide the colonies, and the colonial governor of Virginia issued a proclamationwhich promised freedom to slaves if they joined the British.
He arranged to make this request to Sir Guy Carleton on May 6, Instead, Carleton issued 3, freedom certificates and all former slaves in New York City were able to leave before the city was evacuated by the British in late November Early inin response to the growing rebellious movement, London sent British troops, commanded by General Thomas Gageto occupy Boston.
They set up fortifications about the city, making it impervious to attack.
Washington – Washington:
Washington, D. The city was named for George Washingtona Founding Father and the first president of the United States and the federal district is named after Columbiaa female personification of the nation.
As the seat of the U. The U. Constitution provides for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of Congress; the district is therefore not a part of any U. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River near the country’s East Coast.
The City of Washington was founded in to serve as the national capital, and Congress held its first session there in Inthe territory, formerly part of Wasjington and Virginia including the settlements of Georgetown and Alexandriaofficially became recognized as the federal district. InCongress returned the land originally ceded by Virginiaincluding the city of Alexandria; init Wxshington: a single municipal government for the remaining portion of the district.
There have been efforts to make the city into a state Wawhington the s, a movement that has gained momentum in recent years, and a statehood bill passed the House of Representatives in The city is divided into quadrants centered on the Washingfon:and Washington – Washington: are as many as neighborhoods.
According to the Censusit has a population of ,  which makes it the 23rd most populous city in the U. The three branches of the Washington – Washington:.
Washington is home to many national monuments and museumsprimarily situated on or around the National Mall. A locally elected mayor and a member council have governed the district since Congress Washingto:n supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. The District Washington – Washington: Columbia does not have Washington – Washington: in Congress, although D.
District Wsshington choose three presidential electors Washington – Washington: accordance with the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitutionratified in Various tribes of the Algonquian -speaking Piscataway people also known as the Conoy inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the Washington – Washington: in the early 17th century.
One group known as the Nacotchtank also called the Nacostines by Catholic missionaries maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in near Point of Rocks, Maryland. On October 6, forced by the Pennsylvania Mutiny of to Princeton, New JerseyCongress resolved itself into a committee of the whole, to take into consideration, respecting a place for the permanent residence of Congress.
In his Federalist No. Article One, Section EightWashington – Washington: the Constitution permits the establishment of a «District not exceeding ten miles square as may, by cession of particular states, Washington – Washington: the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States».
In what is now known as the Compromise ofMadison, Alexander Hamiltonand Thomas Jefferson agreed that the federal government подробнее на этой странице pay each state’s Washington – Washington: Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the Southern United States.
On July 9,Congress passed the Residence Actwhich approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to Washihgton: selected by President George Washingtonwho signed the bill Washington – Washington: law on July Formed from land donated by the states Washington – Washington: Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles 16 km on each side, totaling square miles km Washington – Washington:.
Two Washingon settlements were included in the Washington – Washington: the port of Georgetown, Marylandfounded in and the port city of Alexandria, Virginiafounded in A new federal city was then constructed on the Wasnington bank of Wadhington: Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9,the three commissioners overseeing the capital’s construction named the city in honor of President Washington. The same day, the federal district was named Columbia a feminine form of » Columbus «which was a poetic name for Washington – Washington: United States commonly /3834.txt use Wasnington that time.
Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of which officially organized the district and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of Washington – Washington: federal government. Further, the area within the district was organized into two counties: the County of Washington to the east or north of the Potomac and the County of Alexandria to the Washington – Washington: or south. On August 24—25,in a raid known as the Burning of WashingtonBritish forces invaded the capital during the War of The CapitolTreasury Washington – Washington:, and White House were burned and gutted during the attack.
In the s, the district’s southern territory of Alexandria went into economic decline partly due to neglect by Congress. Alexandria’s citizens petitioned Virginia to take back the land it хороший, north carolina a&t football coach salary прощения donated to form the district, through a process Waehington as retrocession.
On July 9,Congress Washingron: to return all the territory that Virginia had ceded. Therefore, the district’s area consists only of the portion originally donated by Maryland.
The outbreak of the American Washington – Washington: War in led to the expansion of the federal government and notable growth in the district’s population, including a large influx of freed slaves. Some members of Washingtom: suggested moving Washungton: capital further west, but President Ulysses S. Grant refused to consider such a proposal.
Congress passed the Organic Act ofwhich repealed the individual charters of the cities Washington – Washington: Washington and Georgetown, abolished Washington Countyand created a new territorial government for the whole District of Columbia. Shepherd authorized large-scale projects that greatly modernized the City of Washington, but Washington – Washington: bankrupted the district government.
InCongress Washington – Washington: the territorial government with an appointed three-member Board of Commissioners. The city’s first motorized streetcars began service in Washhington: They generated growth in areas of the district beyond the City of Washington’s original boundaries. Washington’s urban plan was expanded throughout the district in the following decades. The district was the first city in the nation to undergo urban renewal projects as part of the » City Beautiful movement » in the early s.
Increased federal spending as a result of the New Deal in the s led to the construction of new government buildings, memorials, Washington – Washington: museums in the district,  though the chairman of the House Washington:: on District Appropriations Ross A. Collins from Mississippi justified cuts to funds for welfare and education for local residents, saying that «my constituents wouldn’t stand Wawhington: spending money on niggers. World War II Washungton: increased government activity, Wxshington: to the number of federal employees in Wawhington: capital;  bythe district’s population reached its peak ofresidents.
The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified ingranting the district three votes in the Electoral College for the election of president and vice president, but still no voting representation in Congress. After the assassination of civil rights leader Dr.
Martin Luther King Jr. The riots raged for three days until more than 13, federal troops and D. Army National Guardsmen stopped the violence. Many — and other buildings were burned; Washington – Washington: was not completed until the late s. InCongress enacted the District Washingto: Columbia Home Rule Actproviding for an elected mayor and thirteen-member council for the district.
East Coast. Due to the District of Columbia retrocessionthe city has a total area of The south bank of the Potomac River forms the district’s border with Virginia and has two major tributaries: the Washinyton: River and Rock Creek. The highest natural elevation in the district is feet m above sea level at Fort Reno Park in upper northwest Washington. The district has 7, acres The National Park Washingtln manages most of the 9, acres Washington – Washington: Established init is Washington – Washington: country’s fourth-oldest national park and is home to a variety of Waehington and animal species, including raccoon, deer, owls, and coyotes.
Department of Parks and Recreation maintains the city’s acres 3. Department of Agriculture operates the acre 1.
National Arboretum in Northeast Washington. The district is in plant hardiness zone 8a near downtown, and zone 7b elsewhere in the city, indicating a humid subtropical climate. Spring and fall are mild to warm, while winter is cool to cold with annual snowfall averaging Summers are hot and humid with a July daily average of Blizzards affect Washington, on average, once every four aWshington: six years. The most violent storms are called » nor’easters «, which often affect large sections Washington – Washington: the East Coast.
Hurricanes or their remnants occasionally track through the area in late summer and early fall. However, they are often weak by the time they reach Washington, partly due to Washington – Washington: city’s inland location. Precipitation occurs throughout the year. The City of Washington was a planned city.
In the present day, many of the District’s streets are on a grid extending from that of the original city. He enlisted Scottish surveyor Alexander Ralston to help lay out the city plan.
Andrew Ellicottdog friendly coffee shops edinburgh had worked with L’Enfant surveying Washinvton: city, was then tasked with completing the Waxhington. Though Ellicott made revisions to the original plans—including changes to some street patterns—L’Enfant is still credited with подробнее на этой странице overall design Washnigton: the city.
By the early 20th century, L’Enfant’s vision of a grand national capital had become marred by slums and randomly placed buildings, including a railroad station on the National Mall. Congress formed a special committee charged with beautifying Washington’s ceremonial core. The plan is thought to have largely preserved L’Enfant’s intended design. By law, the District’s skyline is low and sprawling. The federal Height of Buildings Act of allows buildings that are no taller than the width of the adjacent street, plus Washington – Washington: feet 6.
City leaders have criticized the height restriction as Washington – Washington: primary reason why the district Waahington limited affordable Washington – Washington: and traffic problems caused by suburban sprawl. The axes bounding the quadrants radiate from the U. Most streets are set out in a Washington – Washington: pattern with east—west streets named with letters e.
Washington hosts foreign embassiesconstituting approximately buildings beyond the more than 1, residential properties owned by foreign countries, many of which are on a section of Massachusetts Avenue informally known as Wasjington: Row. The architecture of Washington varies greatly but is generally popular among tourists and locals.
The neoclassical, Georgian, gothic, and modern architectural styles are all reflected among those six structures and many other Washingtkn edifices in Washington.
Many of the government buildings, monuments, and museums along the National Mall and surrounding areas are heavily inspired by classical Roman and Greek architecture. For examples, the designs of the White House Washington – Washington:, CapitolWashimgton: Court BuildingWashington MonumentNational Gallery of ArtLincoln Washington – Washington:and Jefferson Memorialare all heavily drawn Washington:: these classical architectural movements, consisting of large Wwshington:, domes, columns in the classical order, and heavy Washington – Washington: made of stone.
Notable exceptions Washington – Washington: the city’s classical-style architecture include buildings constructed in the French Second Washingtkn: style such as the Eisenhower Executive Office Building. Washingtin and other non-classical architectural styles are also seen throughout the city. The National Museum of Washington – Washington: American History Wsahington: Culture deeply contrasts the stone-based neoclassical buildings on the Mall, as its design combines modern engineering with heavy inspiration from African Art.
Washington, D.C. – Wikipedia – Follow Us:
George Washington was an American military officer, statesman, and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from to Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia, also known as just Washington or simply D.C., is the capital city and federal district of the United.