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New Jersey Demographics – Get Current Census Data for New Jersey.

 

It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York ; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean ; on the west by the Delaware River and Pennsylvania ; and on the southwest by Delaware Bay and the state of Delaware.

At 7, square miles 19, km 2 , New Jersey is the fifth-smallest state in land area ; but with close to 9. The state capital is Trenton , and the most populous city is Newark.

With the exception of Warren County , all of the state’s 21 counties lie within the combined statistical areas of New York City or Philadelphia. New Jersey was first inhabited by Native Americans for at least 2, years, with the Lenape being the dominant group when Europeans arrived in the early 17th century.

Dutch and Swedish colonists founded the first European settlements in the state. New Jersey was among the Thirteen Colonies that supported the American Revolution , hosting multiple pivotal battles and military commands in the American Revolutionary War.

The state remained in, and supported, the Union during the American Civil War. Following the Civil War’s end, the state emerged as a major national center of manufacturing and immigration, helping drive the Industrial Revolution [13] and becoming the site for many industrial, technological, and commercial innovations into the mid 20th century. Since New Jersey’s December 18, , founding, many notable New Jersey residents have contributed to the nation’s emergence as a global economic and political superpower, making substantial contributions across academics, activism, art, business, entertainment, government and politics, military, music, religion, science, and in other fields.

New Jersey’s central location in the Northeast megalopolis helped fuel its rapid growth and suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century.

At the turn of the 21st century, its economy increasingly diversified, with major sectors including biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, specialized agriculture, and informational technology. New Jersey remains a major destination for immigrants and has one of the most multicultural populations in the U. Around 18, years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers that reached New Jersey.

As glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic along with rivers, grasslands, swamps, and gorges. New Jersey was originally settled by Native Americans with the Lenni-Lenape tribe being dominant at the time.

Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for land that is now New Jersey. Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans that were based upon common female ancestors. Clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle, Turkey , and Wolf.

They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, and their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade. The Dutch were the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey.

Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape , Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase land that they settled. The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in along North River which eventually became Bergen.

The entire region became a territory of England on June 24, , after an English fleet under command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam , annexing the entire province. Since the state’s inception, New Jersey has been characterized by ethnic and religious diversity. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of acres 40 ha , a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings.

Unlike Plymouth Colony , Jamestown and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, and commercial farming developed sporadically. The colony’s fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, and New Jersey’s population had increased to , by Settlers came primarily from New York and New England.

On March 18, , Berkeley sold his half of the colony to Quakers in England, who settled the Delaware Valley region as a Quaker colony. William Penn acted as trustee for the lands for a time. New Jersey was governed very briefly as two distinct provinces, East and West Jersey , for 28 years between and , at times part of the Province of New York or Dominion of New England. In , the two provinces were reunited under a royal governor rather than a proprietary one.

Edward Hyde , Lord Cornbury, became the first governor of the royal colony. Britain believed that he was an ineffective and corrupt ruler, taking bribes and speculating on land.

In , he was recalled to England. New Jersey was then ruled by the governors of New York, but this infuriated the settlers of New Jersey, who accused these governors of favoritism to New York. It was an act of the Provincial Congress , which made itself into the State Legislature.

To reassure neutrals, it provided that it would become the legislature would disband if New Jersey reached reconciliation with Great Britain. During the American Revolutionary War , British and American armies crossed New Jersey numerous times, and several pivotal battles took place in the state. After the crossing, they surprised and defeated the Hessian troops in the Battle of Trenton. Slightly more than a week after victory at Trenton , Continental Army forces gained an important victory by stopping General Cornwallis’s charges at the Second Battle of Trenton.

By evading Cornwallis’s army, the Continental Army was able to make a surprise attack on Princeton and successfully defeated the British forces there on January 3, Washington’s forces attempted to take the British column by surprise. When the British army attempted to flank the Americans, the Continental Army retreated in disorder. Their ranks were later reorganized and withstood British charges.

In the summer of , the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall at Princeton University , making Princeton the nation’s capital for four months. It was there that the Continental Congress learned of the signing of the Treaty of Paris , which ended the war. On December 18, , New Jersey became the third state to ratify the United States Constitution , which was overwhelmingly popular in New Jersey since it prevented New York and Pennsylvania from charging tariffs on goods imported from Europe.

The New Jersey State Constitution gave the vote to all inhabitants who had a certain level of wealth. This included women and Black people, but not married women because they were not legally permitted to own property separately from their husbands.

Both sides, in several elections, claimed that the other side had had unqualified women vote and mocked them for use of petticoat electors, whether entitled to vote or not; on the other hand, both parties passed Voting Rights Acts.

In , legislature passed a bill interpreting the constitution to mean universal white male suffrage , excluding paupers; the constitution was itself an act of the legislature and not enshrined as the modern constitution.

On February 15, , New Jersey became the last northern state to abolish new slavery and enacted legislation that slowly phased out existing slavery. This led to a gradual decrease of the slave population. Industrialization accelerated in the northern part of the state following completion of the Morris Canal in In , the second state constitution was ratified and brought into effect. Counties thereby became districts for the state senate, and some realignment of boundaries including the creation of Mercer County immediately followed.

This provision was retained in the Constitution, but was overturned by the Supreme Court of the United States in by the decision Baker v. While the Governorship was stronger than under the constitution, the constitution of created many offices that were not responsible to him, or to the people, and it gave him a three-year term, but he could not succeed himself.

New Jersey was one of the few Union states the others being Delaware and Kentucky to select a candidate other than Abraham Lincoln twice in national elections, and sided with Stephen Douglas and George B. McClellan during their campaigns. In New Jersey, the factions of the Democratic party managed an effective coalition in During the course of the war, between 65, and 80, soldiers from the state enlisted in the Union army; unlike many states, including some Northern ones, no battle was fought there.

In the Industrial Revolution , cities like Paterson grew and prospered. Previously, the economy had been largely agrarian, which was problematically subject to crop failures and poor soil. This caused a shift to a more industrialized economy, one based on manufactured commodities such as textiles and silk.

Inventor Thomas Edison also became an important figure of the Industrial Revolution, having been granted 1, patents , many of which for inventions he developed while working in New Jersey.

Edison’s facilities, first at Menlo Park and then in West Orange , are considered perhaps the first research centers in the United States. Christie Street in Menlo Park was the first thoroughfare in the world to have electric lighting.

Transportation was greatly improved as locomotion and steamboats were introduced to New Jersey. Iron mining was also a leading industry during the middle to late 19th century. Bog iron pits in the southern New Jersey Pinelands were among the first sources of iron for the new nation.

Mining generated the impetus for new towns and was one of the driving forces behind the need for the Morris Canal. Zinc mines were also a major industry, especially the Sterling Hill Mine. New Jersey prospered through the Roaring Twenties. During the Great Depression of the s, the state offered begging licenses to unemployed residents, [35] the zeppelin airship Hindenburg crashed in flames over Lakehurst , and the SS Morro Castle beached itself near Asbury Park after going up in flames while at sea.

Through both World Wars , New Jersey was a center for war production, especially naval construction. New Jersey also became a principal location for defense in the Cold War. Fourteen Nike missile stations were constructed for the defense of the New York City and Philadelphia areas. PT , a motor torpedo boat commanded by Lt. John F. On June 7, , an explosion in a CIM Bomarc missile fuel tank caused the accident and subsequent plutonium contamination. In the s, race riots erupted in many of the industrial cities of North Jersey.

Several others ensued in , in Newark and Plainfield. Other riots followed the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. A riot occurred in Camden in As a result of an order from the New Jersey Supreme Court to fund schools equitably, the New Jersey legislature passed an income tax bill in Prior to this bill, the state had no income tax.

The intent of these projects was to encourage transit-oriented development in North Jersey and South Jersey, respectively. In , Jersey City’s Census-estimated population was ,, [49] with the largest population increase of any municipality in New Jersey since , [50] representing an increase of 5. This is New Jersey’s only straight border.

Some New Jersey residents do not consider Central Jersey a region in its own right, but others believe it is a separate geographic and cultural area distinct from the North and South. Within those regions are five distinct areas divided by natural geography and population concentration. Northeastern New Jersey, often referred to as the Gateway Region , lies closest to Manhattan in New York City, and up to a million residents commute daily into the city for work, many via public transportation.

The chief tree of the northern forests is the oak. The Jersey Shore , along the Atlantic Coast in Central and South Jersey, has its own unique natural, residential, and cultural characteristics owing to its location by the ocean.

 
 

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