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Download Table C. Nonetheless, the average Latino or Hispanic-resident neighborhood typically houses a greater share of Latino or Hispanics than the larger metropolitan area. This is illustrated for selected metro areas in Figure 4. Another way to look at neighborhood segregation is with a segregation index, sometimes known as a dissimilarity index.

This index measures the extent to which two different groups, such white and Black populations, are unequally distributed across neighborhoods in a single metropolitan area. The index can range from 0 complete integration to complete segregation , where its value represents the percent of one group e. Interactive map 1 displays these patterns for Black-white segregation among metropolitan areas in to 2. The segregation values range from 41 in Las Vegas to 79 in Milwaukee.

In the s, segregation levels were higher everywhere due to well-documented discriminatory practices by lenders, realtors, and government agencies. The Fair Housing Act outlawed many of those practices, but had its biggest impact in the South, where large waves of Black Americans began to move. Afterward, segregation levels markedly declined in southern metro areas such as Atlanta, Dallas, and Houston, and stayed low in western metro areas.

Today, many metro areas in the South and West register index values below In contrast, many northern areas with long-stagnating Black populations continue to show segregation levels into the 70s, reflecting the persistence of past patterns. Still, these areas have shown recent though small declines in segregation. Download Table D. Baltimore, Atlanta, Washington D.

For example, in Chicago white residents comprise In most of these cities, the white share of the population has continued to decline—among 45 of the 50 cities between and , and among 44 between and download table B.

Other cities which showed similarly large declines in white population shares are Tulsa, Okla. However, over this same period, a few big cities showed small increases in the white population shares, including Washington D. The increased diversity shown for most big cities is the consequence of race-ethnic shifts heavily impacted by movement into and out of these cities of different groups as well as natural demographic growth the increase of births over deaths.

Yet big city populations have also been affected by changes in other racial and ethnic groups, especially white and Black. This stands in contrast with a small overall gain in the aggregated white population and modest decline for Black residents. These aggregate patterns reflect different gains for individual cities download Table C.

The biggest contribution to gains in the vast majority of cities 29 came from the Latino or Hispanic population. This includes cities with long-standing Latino or Hispanic populations such as Houston, San Antonio, and Phoenix, as well as cities where the Latino or Hispanic population is not dominant e.

Philadelphia, Memphis, Tenn. And in four, most notably Los Angeles, the two-or-more-race population was the biggest contributor. Unlike the above-mentioned groups, which contributed to at least some growth in most big cities, contributions of white and Black residents were more uneven. White populations gained in only 28 of the 50 cities and contributed more than any other group in just eight: Denver, Washington, D. And while the Black population grew in 27 cities, it was the biggest contributor in just two, Columbus, Ohio an Arlington, Texas.

In the rest, including those with substantial Black populations, other racial and ethnic groups made bigger contributions. While 22 cities showed white population losses in , this is fewer than those in the previous two decades 34 cities in and 30 in And overall, fewer cities showed large white losses than in earlier decades download Table D.

For example, in the s, six cities lost more than , white residents, led by New York , and Los Angeles , Dismantling Vanport proved unnecessary. In May , the Columbia River flooded, wiping out Vanport in a single day. Residents had been assured that the dikes protecting the housing were safe, and some lost everything in the flood. At least 15 residents died, though some locals formulated a theory that the housing authority had quietly disposed of hundreds more bodies to cover up its slow response.

The 18, residents of Vanport—6, of whom were black—had to find somewhere else to live. For black residents, the only choice, if they wanted to stay in Portland, was a neighborhood called Albina that had emerged as a popular place to live for the black porters who worked in nearby Union Station. It was the only place black people were allowed to buy homes after, in , the Realty Board of Portland had approved a Code of Ethics forbidding realtors and bankers from selling or giving loans to minorities for properties located in white neighborhoods.

As black people moved into Albina, whites moved out; by the end of the s, there were 23, fewer white residents and 7, more black residents than there had been at the beginning of the decade. The neighborhood of Albina began to be the center of black life in Portland.

But for outsiders, it was something else: a blighted slum in need of repair. Fancy condos with balconies line the street, next to juice stores and hipster bars with shuffleboard courts. Ed Washington remembers when this was a majority black neighborhood more than a half a century ago, when his parents moved their family to Portland during the war in order to get jobs in the shipyard.

He says every house on his street, save one, was owned by black families. The urban-renewal efforts made it difficult for black residents to maintain a close-knit community; the institutions that they frequented kept getting displaced. Redlining, the process of denying loans to people who lived in certain areas, flourished in Portland in the s and s.

An investigation by The Oregonian published in revealed that all the banks in Portland together had made just 10 mortgage loans in a four-census-tract area in the heart of Albina in the course of a year.

That was one-tenth the average number of loans in similarly sized census tracts in the rest of the city. The company filed for bankruptcy a few days after the state lawsuit was filed; U. The inability of blacks to get mortgages to buy homes in Albina led, once again, to the further decimation of the black community, Gibson argues.

As more and more houses fell into decay, values plummeted, and those who could left the neighborhood. By , Albina was a neighborhood known for its housing abandonment, crack-cocaine activity, and gang warfare. Absentee landlordism was rampant, with just 44 percent of homes in the neighborhood owner-occupied. It was then, when real-estate prices were at rock bottom, that white people moved in and started buying up homes and businesses, kicking off a process that would make Albina one of the more valuable neighborhoods in Portland.

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Most white cities in america – most white cities in america. Even as metropolitan areas diversify, white Americans still live in mostly white neighborhoods

The ten whitest cities in the United States, including white Hispanics, are: Hialeah, FL (%) Lincoln, NE (88%) Boise, ID (%) Gilbert, AZ (%) Laredo, TX (%) Spokane, WA . Based on this data, the 15 most discriminatory cities in the U.S. are: Waterloo -Cedar Falls, IA Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI Racine, WI Minneapolis-St. Paul, Bloomington, MN . These are America’s most segregated cities, according to 24/7 Wall St. 9. Kansas City, MO-KS 24/7 Wall St. > Pct. of population living in segregated areas: % > Black poverty rate: .


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