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The first United States Census in classed residents as free White people divided by age and sex , all other free persons reported by sex and color , and enslaved people. The Census officially recognized six racial categories including people of two or more races; a category called «some other race» was also used in the census and other surveys, but is not official. Each person has two identifying attributes, racial identity and whether or not they are of Hispanic ethnicity.

The question on Hispanic or Latino origin is separate from the question on race. Latin American countries are, like the United States, racially diverse. When responding to the race question on the census form, each person is asked to choose from among the same racial categories as all Americans, and are included in the numbers reported for those races. See the section on Hispanic and Latino Americans in this article.

Self-identifying as both Hispanic or Latino and not Hispanic or Latino is neither explicitly allowed nor explicitly prohibited. In the United States since its early history, Native Americans, Africans and Europeans were considered to belong to different races. For nearly three centuries, the criteria for membership in these groups were similar, comprising a person’s appearance, their social circle how they lived , and known non-White ancestry the single drop rule.

History played a part, as persons with known slave ancestors were assumed to be African or, in later usage, Black , regardless of whether they also had European ancestry. The differences between how Native American and Black identities are defined today blood quantum versus one-drop and political assumptions have been based on different historical circumstances.

According to the anthropologist Gerald Sider, such racial designations were a means to concentrate power, wealth, privilege and land in the hands of Whites in a society of White hegemony and privilege Sider ; see also Fields They related especially to the different social places which Blacks and Amerindians occupied in White-dominated 19th-century America. Sider suggests that the blood quantum definition of Native American identity enabled mixed-race Whites to acquire Amerindian lands during the allotment process.

The one-drop rule of Black identity, enforced legally in the early 20th century, enabled Whites to preserve their agricultural labor force in the South.

The contrast emerged because, as peoples transported far from their land and kinship ties on another continent, they became reduced to valuable commodities as agricultural laborers. In contrast, Amerindian labor was more difficult to control; moreover, Amerindians occupied large territories that became valuable as agricultural lands, especially with the invention of new technologies such as railroads.

Sider thinks the blood quantum definition enhanced White acquisition of Amerindian lands in a doctrine of Manifest Destiny , which subjected Native Americans to marginalization and resulted in numerous conflicts related to American expansionism.

The political economy of the race had different consequences for the descendants of aboriginal Americans and African slaves. The 19th-century blood quantum rule meant that it was relatively easier for a person of mixed Euro-Amerindian ancestry to be accepted as White.

The offspring of a few generations of intermarriage between Amerindians and Whites likely would not have been considered Amerindian at least not in a legal sense. Amerindians could have treaty rights to land, but because an individual with only one Amerindian great-grandparent no longer was classified as Amerindian, he lost a legal claim to Amerindian land, under the allotment rules of the day.

According to Sider’s theory, Whites were more easily able to acquire Amerindian lands. On the other hand, the same individual who could be denied legal standing in a tribe, according to the government, because he was «too White» to claim property rights, might still have enough visually identifiable Amerindian ancestry to be considered socially as a » half-breed » or breed and stigmatized by both communities.

The 20th-century one-drop rule made it relatively difficult for anyone of known Black ancestry to be accepted as White. The child of an African-American sharecropper and a White person was considered Black by the local communities. In terms of the economics of sharecropping, such a person also would likely become a sharecropper as well, thus adding to the landholder or employer’s labor force.

In short, this theory suggests that in a 20th-century economy that benefited from sharecropping, it was useful to have as many Blacks as possible.

Although some scholars of the Jim Crow period agree that the 20th-century notion of invisible Blackness shifted the color line in the direction of paleness, and «expanded» the labor force in response to Southern Blacks’ Great Migration to the North. But, others such as the historians Joel Williamson , C.

Vann Woodward , George M. Fredrickson , and Stetson Kennedy considered the one-drop rule a consequence of the need to define Whiteness as being pure and justifying White-on-Black oppression. Over the centuries when Whites wielded power over both Blacks and Amerindians — and believed in their inherent superiority over people of color — they created a social order of hypodescent , in which they assigned mixed-race children to the lower-status groups.

They were often ignorant of the systems among Native American tribes of social classification, including kinship and hypodescent. The Omaha people , for instance, who had a patrilineal kinship system, classified all children with White fathers as «White», and excluded them as members of the clans and tribe, unless one was formally adopted by a male member. Tribal members might care for mixed-race children of White fathers but considered them outside the hereditary clan and kinship fundamental to tribal society.

The hypodescent social construction related to the racial caste that was associated with African slavery and the conditions of the slave societies. It was made explicit by Virginia and other colonies’ laws as early as Virginia incorporated the Roman principle of partus sequitur ventrem into slave law, saying that children of slave mothers were born into their status.

Under English common law for subjects, children’s social status was determined by the father, not the mother. But the colonists put Africans outside the category of English subjects. Generally, White men were in positions of power to take sexual advantage of Black women slaves. But, historian Paul Heinegg has shown that most free African-American families listed in the censuses of — were, in fact, descended from unions between White women and African men in colonial Virginia, from the years when working classes lived and worked closely together, and before slavery had hardened as a racial caste.

In the United States, social and legal conventions developed over time by Whites that classified individuals of mixed ancestry into simplified racial categories Gossett , but these were always porous. The decennial censuses conducted since , after slavery was well established in the United States, included classification of persons by race: White, Black, mulatto, and Indian Nobles But, the inclusion of mulatto was an explicit acknowledgement of mixed race.

Three of the four surviving children entered White society as adults, and their descendants have identified as White. In the late 18th and 19th centuries, people of mixed race often migrated to frontiers where societies were more open, and they might be accepted as White if satisfying obligations of citizenship.

The more familiar » one-drop rule » was not adopted by Virginia and other states until the 20th century, but it classified persons with any known African ancestry as Black Davis Passage of such laws was often urged by White supremacists and people promoting «racial purity» through eugenics, having forgotten the long history of multi-racial unions in the South that comprised the ancestry of many families.

In other countries in the Americas , where mixing among groups was overtly more extensive, social categories have tended to be more numerous and fluid. The term Hispanic as an ethnonym emerged in the 20th century, with the rise of migration of laborers from Spanish-speaking countries of the western hemisphere to the United States. It includes people who may have been considered racially distinct Black, White, Amerindian or other mixed groups in their home countries.

Today, the word «Latino» is often used as a synonym for «Hispanic». Even if such categories were earlier understood as racial categories, today they have begun to represent ethnolinguistic categories regardless of perceived race.

Similarly, » Anglo » is now used among many Hispanics to refer to non- Hispanic White Americans or European Americans , most of whom speak the English language but are not of primarily English descent. A similar phenomenon of ethnolinguistic identity can historically and in some cases contemporarily be seen in the case of the Louisiana Creole people , who may be of any race but share certain cultural characteristics, although they tend to attract little attention on a national level.

The United States is a racially diverse country. The growth of the Hispanic population through immigration and high birth rates is noted as a partial factor for the US’ population gains in the last quarter-century.

The census revealed that Native Americans had reached their highest documented population, 4. The immigrants to the New World came largely from widely separated regions of the Old World. In the Americas, the immigrant populations began to mix among themselves and with the indigenous inhabitants of the continents. In the United States, for example, most people who identify as African American have some European ancestors, as revealed by genetic studies.

In one analysis of those genetic markers that have differing frequencies between continents, European ancestry ranged from an estimated seven percent for a sample of Jamaicans to about 23 percent for a sample of African Americans from New Orleans, where there was historically a large class of mixed-race people Parra et al. In the United States since its early history, Native Americans, African Americans, and European Americans were classified as belonging to different races.

For nearly three centuries, the criteria among Whites for membership in these groups were similar, comprising physical appearance, assumption of non-European ancestry, and social circle. The criteria for membership in these races diverged in the late 19th century. During and after Reconstruction , after the emancipation of slaves after the Civil War, in the effort to restore White supremacy in the South, Whites began to classify anyone with » one drop » of «Black blood», or known African ancestry, to be Black.

Such a legal definition was not put into law until the early 20th century in most southern states, but many established racial segregation of facilities during the Jim Crow era, after White Democrats regained control of state legislatures in the South. Efforts to track mixing between groups led to an earlier proliferation of historical categories such as » mulatto » and » octaroon » among persons with partial African descent and «blood quantum» distinctions, which became increasingly untethered from self-reported ancestry.

In the 20th century, efforts to classify the increasingly mixed population of the United States into discrete categories generated many difficulties Spickard By the standards used in past censuses , many mixed-race children born in the United States were classified as of a different race than one of their biological parents.

In addition, a person may change personal racial identification over time because of cultural aspects, and self-ascribed race can differ from the assigned race Kressin et al.

Until the census, Latinos were required to identify as one race, and none was Latino. Mays et al. Historical trends influencing the ethnic demographics of the United States include:. In some cases, immigrants and migrants form ethnic enclaves ; in others, mixture creates ethnically diverse neighborhoods. White and European Americans are the majority of people living in the United States. Virgin Islands. In , demographer Dudley L. Poston Jr. And now, for the first time ever, there are fewer White than non-White children under 10 years of age.

The non-Hispanic White percentage of the 50 states and District of Columbia Although a high proportion of the population is known to have multiple ancestries, in the census, the first with the option to choose more than one, most people still identified with one racial category.

This makes German and Irish the largest and second-largest self-reported ancestry groups in the United States. Both groups had high rates of immigration to the U. However, English Americans and British Americans are still considered the largest ethnic group due to a serious undercount following the census whereby many English and British Americans self-identified under the new category entry ‘American’ considering themselves ‘indigenous’ because their families had resided in the US for so long [43] [44] [45] [46] or, if of mixed European ancestry, identified with a more recent and differentiated ethnic group.

This change in reporting represented the largest «growth» of any ethnic group in the United States during the s, but it represented how people reported themselves more than growth through birth rates, for instance, and certainly did not reflect immigration.

Most French Americans are believed to be descended from colonists of Catholic New France ; exiled Huguenots , much fewer in number and settling in the eastern English colonies in the late s and early s, needed to assimilate into the majority culture and have intermarried over generations. Hispanic immigration has increased from nations of Central and South America. Hispanic and Latino Americans constitute They chiefly have origins in the Spanish-speaking nations of Latin America.

Very few also come from other places, for example: 0. For Census , American Community Survey: People who identify with the terms «Hispanic» or «Latino» are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the Census or ACS questionnaire «Mexican,» «Puerto Rican,» «Dominican,» or «Cuban» as well as those who indicate that they are «other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino».

Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person, or the person’s parents or ancestors, before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race. According to the PEP The remaining Hispanics are accounted as follows, first per the PEP: 1. Per the ACS: 3. According to Pew Research Center the Latino population has been the principal driver of United States demographic growth since Mexicans make up most of the Hispanic and Latino population 35,, Among U.

In , The Hispanic or Latino population is young and fast-growing, due to immigration and higher birth rates.

The Census Bureau projects that by , one-quarter of the population will be Hispanic or Latino. In this case, the grouping is thus based on the geography of the individual, and may contradict or misrepresent their self-identification, for instance not all immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa are «Black».

Prior to European colonization, Native Americans were the original residents of the present-day United States.

Unfortunately, the arrival of Europeans meant new exposure to diseases, and often involve a violent outcome. The Native American population dwindled, and today the population group still disproportionately suffers from high poverty rates.

Mexicans have been immigrating to the US throughout the history of the country due to the proximity of the country to the US. The people of the Mexican ethnic group is majorly found in the southwestern borders of the US and constitute The Mexicans also constitute American people cite a variety of ethnic backgrounds. One of the Internet’s first global celebs, Cagri’s broken English overtures to women particularly his catchphrase «I kiss you» is believed to have inspired Borat.

Not so coo l: The Turkish passion for mustaches gets up some people’s noses. The Tomorrowland Electro Musical Festival – don’t let anyone tell you Belgians don’t know how to party. Yep, you read that right: Belgians. OK, so it’s small, damp and has a grim rep as a haven for European Union bureaucrats. But a nation that has made art forms of beer, chocolate and, yes, finch warbling can’t be all bad.

Cool icon: Herman Van Rompuy. Gray hair, gray suit, but great name. The former prime minister and onetime European Union president also has a nifty sideline in poetry, hence the nickname, «Haiku Herman. Not so cool: No matter how you look at it, it’s still Belgium. Ain’t no mountain high enough If you’re from Nepal, crazy weather conditions don’t put you off Everest.

Like all pimps and players, you’ve never seen a Nepalese in a hurry to get anywhere. Yet from this mellow-gold group have also come the feared Nepalese Ghurkas, among the toughest fighting men in the world, and Sherpas, who you might know as semi-outdoorsy types. Icon of cool : Tenzing Norgay.

Reached summit of Mt. Everest with Sir Edmund Hillary, but casually stepped aside and let his hiking buddy hog all the credit. Not so cool : Draconian government regs and local ne’er-do-wells turn off a fair amount of travelers. Any nationality so lazy it finds the need to abbreviate or shorten any word possible is definitely cool. The emphasis on brevity allows more time for breathing and drinking.

After all, it is pretty hot most of the time. Add to that beaches, barbecues and bikinis — yes they’re stereotypes, but for good reason — and Aussies lead one very cool existence. They have their own fauna, flora and «holier than thou» small-person syndrome that inspires them to take on anyone in sport, and more often that not, beat them.

Fair bloody dinkum’! Work that out. Icon of cool : The frosted, cold beer stubby. Not so cool : The warm stubby. And the gold bit of the Green and Gold — the Wallaby jersey and the Australia’s national one-day team’s World Cup outfit are downright embarrassing. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. African Americans Black American. Hispanic or Latino of any race.

French Canadian. Trinidadian and Tobagonian.


Most popular nationalities in america. Percentage of U.S. population as of 2016 and 2060, by race and Hispanic origin

The 12 Most Common Ethnicities In America · #12 Swedish: 4,, · #11 Norwegian: 4,, · #10 Dutch: 4,, · #9 Scottish: 5,, · #8. 1, German, % ; 2, Black or African American (non-Hispanic), % ; 3, Mexican (of any race), % ; 4, Irish, %.


Mapped: Visualizing the U.S. Population by Race


Note: This is an update of a post originally published May 22, On Sept. For more about measuring the Taiwanese population in the U. For more information on Asians in the U. About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research.

Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts. Newsletters Press Donate My Account. Research Topics. Related content Key facts about Asian Americans, a diverse and growing population Fact sheets: Asian Americans Being Asian in America: A major research project based on 66 focus groups.

Share this link:. Abby Budiman is a former research analyst focusing on race and ethnicity research at Pew Research Center. Visualizing Major Layoffs At U. Visualized: The Top 25 U. Newspapers by Daily Circulation. Demographics Animation: The Global Population Over Years, by Country This animated video shows how much the population has grown over the last three centuries, and which regions have driven this growth.

Creator Program. Published 1 week ago on October 1, By Carmen Ang. Continue Reading. Demographics Charted: The Working Hours of Americans at Different Income Levels This graphic shows the average working hours between higher and lower-income groups in America, based on income percentile. Published 3 weeks ago on September 20, And in surveys across other countries, though with hundreds of respondents instead of thousands, the discrepancy was similar: Do the rich really work longer hours than the poor?

The graph below plots data from 27 countries. High concentrations of Black residents are prevalent in many northern urban counties and, together with other nonwhite groups, in parts of the West. The much smaller American Indian and Alaska native population is highly represented, often with other groups, in Oklahoma, Alaska, portions of the Mountain West, and the Upper Great Plains.

As a group, these counties—which occupy large sections of the middle of the country—are home to just three out of 10 of all U. In contrast, about one-third of U. Diversity is becoming more prevalent everywhere. Large metropolitan areas have historically served as destinations for immigrants, Black migration to urban areas, and, more recently, for Latino or Hispanic and Asian Americans. Yet their diversity profiles differ widely across these areas. See downloadable Table A.

Map 2 makes this clear. There are 20 other areas where two nonwhite groups are highly represented. There are quite a few metropolitan areas where one nonwhite racial and ethnic group is most prevalent. These includes 29 metro areas, mostly in the South, with a high representation of Black residents; 13 metro areas, largely in the West and South, with large Latino or Hispanic populations; and four areas—Seattle; Portland, Ore.

Paul; and Boston—where Asian Americans are highly represented. Race and ethnicity in the U. For decades, America was a melting pot of the racial and ethnical diversity of its population.

The number of people of different ethnic groups in the United States has been growing steadily over the last decade, as has the population in total. For example, The median annual family income in the United States in earned by Black families was about 50, U.

This is more than 15, U. The unemployment rate varies by ethnicity as well. In , about 6. In contrast to that, only three percent of the population with Asian origin was unemployed. Loading statistic Show source. Download for free You need to log in to download this statistic Register for free Already a member? Log in. Racial discrimination against African Americans was legally outlawed following the influential of the Civil Rights Movement , though inequality still exists today. Today, African Americans constitute Most of the Americans who cite English ancestry are found in north-western US.

Today, people of English origin make up Presently the ethnic group makes up


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