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White Bolivians composed Bolivia is inhabited mostly by Quechua Spanish, Quechua, Aymara, Guarani languages, as well as 34 other native languages are the official language of Bolivia. The Hispanic countries are: Argentina. Bolivia is the poorest country in South America. Although classified as middle income, it is at the very low end of the scale. Still, Bolivia has one of the highest levels of extreme poverty in Latin America and the rate of poverty reduction has stagnated over the last few years.

Bolivia officially ended slavery with its independence from Spain in Yet, as a practical matter, enslavement continued until By that point many Afro-Bolivians headed towards the Yungas, a semitropical region near the border with Peru, and formed villages such as Mururata.

Roman Catholic Religion in Bolivia The predominant religion is Roman Catholic with a scattering of other protestant groups. Indigenous Bolivians have blended Catholicism and their traditional religious beliefs. Bolivia is a state plagued with inequality and inadequate development , making it the poorest nation in South America.

Bolivia is somewhat safe to visit , though it has many dangers. You should be aware that tourist hotspots, restaurants, shops and public transportation are places where most thefts and pickpocketing occur, and that violent crime exists on the streets, too. The reason that Bolivia has two capitals cities goes back to the Federal Revolution of Eventually, there was an agreement to keep the official capital in Sucre, while La Paz would get more power by being where the executive and legislative seats of the government would be located.

Indigenous peoples in Bolivia, or Native Bolivians , are Bolivian people who are of indigenous ancestry. Aymara and Quechua are the largest groups. About , Bolivians were estimated to reside outside the country in the late s, in search of employment and better economic opportunities. Since the emigrants tend to have basic training or technical skills , a drain of important human resources is occurring.

And that low-cost lifestyle is not one of minimalistic denial. Example of the Cost of Living in Bolivia.

Sadie Daniel is an adventurer at heart. She loves to travel and explore new places. Her thirst for adventure has taken her all over the world, and she’s always looking for her next big thrill. Sadie is also a lover of animals, and has been known to rescue stray cats and dogs in her neighborhood. She is a kind-hearted person who enjoys helping others, and she would do anything for her family and friends.

Contents 1 What is the racial makeup of Bolivia? See also How do Bolivians celebrate Easter? See also What is the main biome in Peru? See also What ruin is a popular tourist attraction in Peru? Load More.


What percentage of the south is white


The one-drop rule of Black identity, enforced legally in the early 20th century, enabled Whites to preserve their agricultural labor force in the South. The contrast emerged because, as peoples transported far from their land and kinship ties on another continent, they became reduced to valuable commodities as agricultural laborers. In contrast, Amerindian labor was more difficult to control; moreover, Amerindians occupied large territories that became valuable as agricultural lands, especially with the invention of new technologies such as railroads.

Sider thinks the blood quantum definition enhanced White acquisition of Amerindian lands in a doctrine of Manifest Destiny , which subjected Native Americans to marginalization and resulted in numerous conflicts related to American expansionism. The political economy of the race had different consequences for the descendants of aboriginal Americans and African slaves. The 19th-century blood quantum rule meant that it was relatively easier for a person of mixed Euro-Amerindian ancestry to be accepted as White.

The offspring of a few generations of intermarriage between Amerindians and Whites likely would not have been considered Amerindian at least not in a legal sense. Amerindians could have treaty rights to land, but because an individual with only one Amerindian great-grandparent no longer was classified as Amerindian, he lost a legal claim to Amerindian land, under the allotment rules of the day.

According to Sider’s theory, Whites were more easily able to acquire Amerindian lands. On the other hand, the same individual who could be denied legal standing in a tribe, according to the government, because he was «too White» to claim property rights, might still have enough visually identifiable Amerindian ancestry to be considered socially as a » half-breed » or breed and stigmatized by both communities.

The 20th-century one-drop rule made it relatively difficult for anyone of known Black ancestry to be accepted as White. The child of an African-American sharecropper and a White person was considered Black by the local communities. In terms of the economics of sharecropping, such a person also would likely become a sharecropper as well, thus adding to the landholder or employer’s labor force. In short, this theory suggests that in a 20th-century economy that benefited from sharecropping, it was useful to have as many Blacks as possible.

Although some scholars of the Jim Crow period agree that the 20th-century notion of invisible Blackness shifted the color line in the direction of paleness, and «expanded» the labor force in response to Southern Blacks’ Great Migration to the North.

But, others such as the historians Joel Williamson , C. Vann Woodward , George M. Fredrickson , and Stetson Kennedy considered the one-drop rule a consequence of the need to define Whiteness as being pure and justifying White-on-Black oppression. Over the centuries when Whites wielded power over both Blacks and Amerindians — and believed in their inherent superiority over people of color — they created a social order of hypodescent , in which they assigned mixed-race children to the lower-status groups.

They were often ignorant of the systems among Native American tribes of social classification, including kinship and hypodescent. The Omaha people , for instance, who had a patrilineal kinship system, classified all children with White fathers as «White», and excluded them as members of the clans and tribe, unless one was formally adopted by a male member.

Tribal members might care for mixed-race children of White fathers but considered them outside the hereditary clan and kinship fundamental to tribal society. The hypodescent social construction related to the racial caste that was associated with African slavery and the conditions of the slave societies. It was made explicit by Virginia and other colonies’ laws as early as Virginia incorporated the Roman principle of partus sequitur ventrem into slave law, saying that children of slave mothers were born into their status.

Under English common law for subjects, children’s social status was determined by the father, not the mother. But the colonists put Africans outside the category of English subjects. Generally, White men were in positions of power to take sexual advantage of Black women slaves. But, historian Paul Heinegg has shown that most free African-American families listed in the censuses of — were, in fact, descended from unions between White women and African men in colonial Virginia, from the years when working classes lived and worked closely together, and before slavery had hardened as a racial caste.

In the United States, social and legal conventions developed over time by Whites that classified individuals of mixed ancestry into simplified racial categories Gossett , but these were always porous. The decennial censuses conducted since , after slavery was well established in the United States, included classification of persons by race: White, Black, mulatto, and Indian Nobles But, the inclusion of mulatto was an explicit acknowledgement of mixed race. Three of the four surviving children entered White society as adults, and their descendants have identified as White.

In the late 18th and 19th centuries, people of mixed race often migrated to frontiers where societies were more open, and they might be accepted as White if satisfying obligations of citizenship. The more familiar » one-drop rule » was not adopted by Virginia and other states until the 20th century, but it classified persons with any known African ancestry as Black Davis Passage of such laws was often urged by White supremacists and people promoting «racial purity» through eugenics, having forgotten the long history of multi-racial unions in the South that comprised the ancestry of many families.

In other countries in the Americas , where mixing among groups was overtly more extensive, social categories have tended to be more numerous and fluid. The term Hispanic as an ethnonym emerged in the 20th century, with the rise of migration of laborers from Spanish-speaking countries of the western hemisphere to the United States.

It includes people who may have been considered racially distinct Black, White, Amerindian or other mixed groups in their home countries. Today, the word «Latino» is often used as a synonym for «Hispanic». Even if such categories were earlier understood as racial categories, today they have begun to represent ethnolinguistic categories regardless of perceived race. Similarly, » Anglo » is now used among many Hispanics to refer to non- Hispanic White Americans or European Americans , most of whom speak the English language but are not of primarily English descent.

A similar phenomenon of ethnolinguistic identity can historically and in some cases contemporarily be seen in the case of the Louisiana Creole people , who may be of any race but share certain cultural characteristics, although they tend to attract little attention on a national level.

The United States is a racially diverse country. The growth of the Hispanic population through immigration and high birth rates is noted as a partial factor for the US’ population gains in the last quarter-century.

The census revealed that Native Americans had reached their highest documented population, 4. The immigrants to the New World came largely from widely separated regions of the Old World.

In the Americas, the immigrant populations began to mix among themselves and with the indigenous inhabitants of the continents. In the United States, for example, most people who identify as African American have some European ancestors, as revealed by genetic studies.

In one analysis of those genetic markers that have differing frequencies between continents, European ancestry ranged from an estimated seven percent for a sample of Jamaicans to about 23 percent for a sample of African Americans from New Orleans, where there was historically a large class of mixed-race people Parra et al.

In the United States since its early history, Native Americans, African Americans, and European Americans were classified as belonging to different races.

For nearly three centuries, the criteria among Whites for membership in these groups were similar, comprising physical appearance, assumption of non-European ancestry, and social circle.

The criteria for membership in these races diverged in the late 19th century. During and after Reconstruction , after the emancipation of slaves after the Civil War, in the effort to restore White supremacy in the South, Whites began to classify anyone with » one drop » of «Black blood», or known African ancestry, to be Black. Such a legal definition was not put into law until the early 20th century in most southern states, but many established racial segregation of facilities during the Jim Crow era, after White Democrats regained control of state legislatures in the South.

Efforts to track mixing between groups led to an earlier proliferation of historical categories such as » mulatto » and » octaroon » among persons with partial African descent and «blood quantum» distinctions, which became increasingly untethered from self-reported ancestry. In the 20th century, efforts to classify the increasingly mixed population of the United States into discrete categories generated many difficulties Spickard By the standards used in past censuses , many mixed-race children born in the United States were classified as of a different race than one of their biological parents.

In addition, a person may change personal racial identification over time because of cultural aspects, and self-ascribed race can differ from the assigned race Kressin et al.

Until the census, Latinos were required to identify as one race, and none was Latino. Mays et al. Historical trends influencing the ethnic demographics of the United States include:. In some cases, immigrants and migrants form ethnic enclaves ; in others, mixture creates ethnically diverse neighborhoods.

White and European Americans are the majority of people living in the United States. Virgin Islands. In , demographer Dudley L. Poston Jr. And now, for the first time ever, there are fewer White than non-White children under 10 years of age. The non-Hispanic White percentage of the 50 states and District of Columbia Although a high proportion of the population is known to have multiple ancestries, in the census, the first with the option to choose more than one, most people still identified with one racial category.

This makes German and Irish the largest and second-largest self-reported ancestry groups in the United States. Both groups had high rates of immigration to the U. However, English Americans and British Americans are still considered the largest ethnic group due to a serious undercount following the census whereby many English and British Americans self-identified under the new category entry ‘American’ considering themselves ‘indigenous’ because their families had resided in the US for so long [43] [44] [45] [46] or, if of mixed European ancestry, identified with a more recent and differentiated ethnic group.

This change in reporting represented the largest «growth» of any ethnic group in the United States during the s, but it represented how people reported themselves more than growth through birth rates, for instance, and certainly did not reflect immigration. Most French Americans are believed to be descended from colonists of Catholic New France ; exiled Huguenots , much fewer in number and settling in the eastern English colonies in the late s and early s, needed to assimilate into the majority culture and have intermarried over generations.

Hispanic immigration has increased from nations of Central and South America. Hispanic and Latino Americans constitute They chiefly have origins in the Spanish-speaking nations of Latin America. Very few also come from other places, for example: 0. For Census , American Community Survey: People who identify with the terms «Hispanic» or «Latino» are those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the Census or ACS questionnaire «Mexican,» «Puerto Rican,» «Dominican,» or «Cuban» as well as those who indicate that they are «other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino».

Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person, or the person’s parents or ancestors, before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race. According to the PEP The remaining Hispanics are accounted as follows, first per the PEP: 1.

Per the ACS: 3. According to Pew Research Center the Latino population has been the principal driver of United States demographic growth since Mexicans make up most of the Hispanic and Latino population 35,, Among U. In , The Hispanic or Latino population is young and fast-growing, due to immigration and higher birth rates.

The Census Bureau projects that by , one-quarter of the population will be Hispanic or Latino. In this case, the grouping is thus based on the geography of the individual, and may contradict or misrepresent their self-identification, for instance not all immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa are «Black». African Americans also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans, and formerly as American Negroes are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the Black populations of Africa.

There were 37,, non-Hispanic Blacks, which comprised Most African Americans are the direct descendants of captives from West Africa , who survived the slavery era within the boundaries of the present United States. The English settlers treated these captives as indentured servants and released them after a number of years.

This practice was gradually replaced by the system of race-based slavery used in the Caribbean. According to US Census Bureau data, very few African immigrants self-identify as «African-American» as «African-American» is usually referring to Blacks with deeply rooted ancestry dating back to the US slave period as discussed in the previous paragraph.

Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American, and South American nations and their descendants may or may not also self-identify with the term «African American». A third significant minority is the Asian American population, comprising There are also many Asians living in two Pacific U.

Their histories are diverse. As with the new immigration from central and eastern Europe to the East Coast from the midth century on, Asians started immigrating to the United States in large numbers in the 19th century. This first major wave of immigration consisted predominantly of Chinese and Japanese laborers, but also included Korean and South Asian immigrants. Many immigrants also came during and after this period from the Philippines , which was a US colony from to Exclusion laws and policies largely prohibited and curtailed Asian immigration until the s.

After the US changed its immigration laws during the s to s to make entry easier, a much larger new wave of immigration from Asia began.

Not all of Asian Americans’ ancestors directly migrated from their country of origin to the US. Indigenous peoples of the Americas , particularly Native Americans , made up 0. Levels of Native American ancestry distinct from Native American identity differ. The genomes of self-reported African Americans averaged to 0. The legal and official designation of who is Native American has aroused controversy by demographers, tribal nations, and government officials for many decades.

Federally recognized tribes and state recognized tribes set their own membership requirements; tribal enrollment may require residency on a reservation, documented lineal descent from recognized records, such as the Dawes Rolls , and other criteria. Some tribes have adopted the use of blood quantum, requiring members to have a certain percentage. The federal government requires individuals to certify documented blood quantum of ancestry for certain federal programs, such as education benefits, available to members of recognized tribes.

But Census takers accept any respondent’s identification. Genetic scientists estimated that more than fifteen million other Americans, including African Americans and Hispanic Americans specifically those of Mexican heritage , may have up to one quarter of American Indian ancestry. Once thought to face extinction as a race or culture, Native Americans of numerous tribes have achieved revival of aspects of their cultures, together with asserting their sovereignty and direction of their own affairs since the midth century.

Many have started language programs to revive use of traditional languages; some have established tribally controlled colleges and other schools on their reservations, so that education is expressive of their cultures.

Since the late 20th century, many tribes have developed gaming casinos on their sovereign land to raise revenues for economic development, as well as to promote the education and welfare of their people through health care and construction of improved housing.

Today, more than , to one million persons claim Cherokee descent in part or as full-bloods; of these, an estimated , live in California; , in Oklahoma the majority are Cherokee Nation citizens and 16, in the United Keetoowah Band ; and 15, in North Carolina in ancestral homelands who are members of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. It is home to half the , Navajo Nation members. Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders numbered approximately , in , or 0.

More than half identify as «full-blooded», but historically most Native Hawaiians on the island chain of Hawaii are believed to have admixture with Asian and European ancestries. Some demographers believe that by , the last full-blooded Native Hawaiian will die off, leaving a culturally distinct, but racially mixed population. Throughout Hawaii, they are working to preserve and assert adaptation of Native Hawaiian customs and the Hawaiian language. They have cultural schools solely for legally Native Hawaiian students.

See also, Hawaiian Renaissance and Hawaiian sovereignty movement. There are significant Pacific Islander populations living in three Pacific U. As of , American Samoa ‘s population was There are an estimated 9—10 million Middle Eastern Americans according to the U. Census, [91] including both Arab and non-Arab Americans, [92] comprising 0. Census population estimates are based on responses to the ancestry question on the census, which makes it difficult to accurately count Middle Eastern Americans.

Middle Eastern Americans are counted as White on the census. The expert groups felt that the earlier «White» designation no longer accurately represents MENA identity, so they successfully lobbied for a distinct categorization.

Self-identified multiracial Americans numbered 7. While the colonies and southern states protected White fathers by making all children born to slave mothers be classified as slaves, regardless of paternity, they also banned miscegenation or interracial marriage , most notably between Whites and Blacks.

This did little to stop interracial relationships, except as legal, consensual unions. Demographers state that, due to new waves of immigration, the American people through the early 20th century were mostly multi-ethnic descendants of various immigrant nationalities, who maintained cultural distinctiveness until, over time, assimilation , migration and integration took place. According to James P.

Allen and Eugene Turner from California State University, Northridge , by some calculations in the Census, the multiracial population that is part White which is the largest percentage of the multiracial population , is as follows:.

A study found an average of In Robert Stuckert produced a statistical analysis using historical census data and immigration statistics. He concluded that the growth in the White population could not be attributed solely to births in the White population and immigration from Europe, but was also due to people identifying as White who were partly Black.

He concluded that 21 percent of White Americans had some recent African-American ancestors. He also concluded that the majority of Americans of known African descent were partly European and not entirely sub-Saharan African. More recently, many different DNA studies have shown that many African Americans have European admixture, reflecting the long history in this country of the various populations. The Race, Ethnicity, and Genetics Working Group of the National Human Genome Research Institute notes that «although genetic analyses of large numbers of loci can produce estimates of the percentage of a person’s ancestors coming from various continental populations, these estimates may assume a false distinctiveness of the parental populations, since human groups have exchanged mates from local to continental scales throughout history.

In the census, the non-standard category of «Other» [3] was especially intended to capture responses such as Mestizo and Mulatto , [20] two large multiracial groups in most of the countries of origin of Hispanic and Latino Americans. However, many other responses are captured by the category.

In The ancestry of the people of the United States of America is widely varied and includes descendants of populations from around the world. In addition to its variation, the ancestry of people of the United States is also marked by varying amounts of intermarriage between ethnic and racial groups. While some Americans can trace their ancestry back to a single ethnic group or population in Europe , Africa , or Asia , these are often first, second and third-generation Americans.

Generally, the degree of mixed heritage increases the longer people’s ancestors have lived in the United States see melting pot. There are several means available to discover the ancestry of the people living in the United States, including genealogy , genetics , oral and written history , and analysis of Federal Population Census schedules; in practice, only few of these have been used for a larger part of the population.

According to the — American Community Survey , the thirty largest ancestry groups in the United States were see above for the OMB self-designation options : [] [] [] []. However, demographers regard the reported number of English Americans as a serious undercount, as the index of inconsistency is high and many if not most Americans from English stock have a tendency to identify simply as » Americans » [] [] [] [] or if of mixed European ancestry, identify with a more recent and differentiated ethnic group.

These images display frequencies of self-reported ancestries, as of the U. Regional African ancestries are not listed, though an African American map has been added from another source. Frequency of American ancestry. Density of Asian Americans. Percent of Asian Americans. Density of African Americans. Percent of African Americans. Density of Native Hawaiian Americans. Percent of Native Hawaiian Americans. Density of Native Americans. Percent of Native Americans. Density of White Americans.

Percent of White Americans. Density of Hispanic ancestry. Percent of Hispanic ancestry. These images display frequencies of self-reported European American ancestries as of the U. English ancestry.

Finnish ancestry. French Canadian ancestry. Icelandic ancestry. Lithuanian ancestry. Norwegian ancestry. Portuguese ancestry. Romanian ancestry. Russian ancestry. Scots-Irish ancestry. Scottish ancestry. Swedish ancestry. Ukrainian ancestry. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is part of a series on the Culture of the United States.

This article needs to be updated. The reason given is: census data. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

January See also: Category:Lists of American people by ethnic or national origin. This section needs additional citations for verification. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main articles: European Americans and White Americans. Main article: Hispanic and Latino Americans. Main article: African Americans. Main article: Asian Americans. Main article: Multiracial Americans. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. African ancestry.

Arab ancestry. West Indian ancestry. Czech ancestry. Danish ancestry. Dutch ancestry. French ancestry. German ancestry. Greek ancestry. This three-year loss of over a half-million whites was enough to counter gains earlier in the decade, in total yielding a loss of white U.

Even this relatively small white population decline represents a significant demographic marker. First, if the data is confirmed in the full census, the to decade would be the first decade since the first census was taken in when the white population did not grow.

White population gains in recent decades have grown smaller over time, from But a white population loss between and would be unprecedented. Second, the Census Bureau was not projecting white population losses to occur until after This makes any national population growth even more reliant on other race and ethnic groups.

The white demographic decline is largely attributable to its older age structure when compared to other race and ethnic groups. This leads to fewer births and more deaths relative to its population size. In , the white median age was The new census estimates show that, in contrast to other groups, white Americans sustained a natural decrease an excess of deaths over births of 1,, over the to period.

The loss was partially attenuated by the net gain of 1,, white immigrants. Thus, the projected decline in the white population occurred eight years earlier than census projections predicted , contributing to the lower growth in the total U. Nationally, the U.

For most of these groups, natural increase was the primary contributor to growth. Asian Americans, Black residents, and persons of two or more races contributed 4. This is not just the case nationally, but for many individual areas within the United States as well. While white population losses are not evident in all parts of the country, it is fairly pervasive, with the main exceptions being places that attract white internal migrants.

Between and , 27 states and 47 of the largest metropolitan areas showed white population losses. The areas with the largest white population gains were highly represented in the Sun Belt download Tables C and D.

Despite losses in white populations, only four states and eight metropolitan areas experienced total population declines. In all of the other areas with white population losses, other race-ethnic groups more than made up for the decline. Metropolitan Miami, for example, lost , whites over this period, but gained , people from other groups, especially Latinos or Hispanics.

Yet, in of those where well over half of that population resides , white losses were more than countered by gains in racial and ethnic minority populations. These include an array of types of places cities, suburbs, and rural areas in all parts of the country.

In a country that is rapidly aging, an absolute decline in this youthful population represents a demographic challenge for the future. A major reason for this decline lies in the fact that a good part of the aforementioned white population loss is concentrated among those under age Low fertility and an aging white adult population with proportionately fewer women in child-bearing ages reflects a long-term impediment to future white youth gains.

To some extent, these factors also contributed to the small losses for Black and Native American populations under age However, these losses have been partially made up for with gains in young populations of Latinos or Hispanics, Asian Americans, and persons of two or more races.

The relative youth of the Latino and Hispanic population, in particular, contributes to higher levels of natural increase. Along with Asian Americans, they also benefit from immigration. Hence, the 5. The national white decline in the under population also impacts states and other areas.


What percentage of the south is white –

 · Bolivia is the poorest country in South America. Although classified as middle income, it is at the very low end of the , Bolivia has one of the highest levels of . 15 hours ago · In South Africa, Starboard, and partner-in-crime Port, have been reported preying on other shark species and have been linked to white shark deaths since around , but this .  · Race and Hispanic origin in the South as a percentage of the total population, expressed as percentage point difference from the United States. Scope: rank of place out .


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