Great smoky mountains features
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Great Smoky Mountains National Park Geographic Features There are over 2, miles of streams and rivers that flow through the park. There is an 85″ annual rainfall that feeds the . Jun 10, · Great Smoky Mountains National Park is a mecca for outdoor lovers. Along with its abundant wildflowers and wildlife, the park offers stunning waterfalls along wooded trails . Great Smoky Mountains National Park is situated on over square miles of the Southern Appalachians between Tennessee and North Carolina. The Great Smoky Mountains, and the .
Great Smoky Mountains National Park Natural Features.Geology – Great Smoky Mountains National Park (U.S. National Park Service)
A tour through the park offers visitors great smoky mountains features mountain scenery, including panoramic views, tumbling streams, and mature hardwood forests stretching to the horizon. The landscape of the Great Smokies has undergone profound changes throughout the ages.
The rocks in this area are mostly of a sedimentary type. That is, they were formed by accumulations of soil, silt, подробнее на этой странице, and gravel deposited into a huge shallow sea. Over millions of years, more and more sediments were deposited, becoming layers of hard rock some nine miles or more thick.
Approximately million years ago, great smoky mountains features continents gradually collided in a climactic mountain building episode. As the continents collided, tremendous pressures were generated which deformed great smoky mountains features once horizontal sedimentary rocks into folded structures.
An entire belt of folded and faulted rocks extends over 2, miles from what is now Maine to Georgia and is known collectively as the Appalachian Mountains. The Great Smoky Mountains are but a small portion of that range. The Appalachian Mountains are among the oldest mountains in the world.
Through the eons, forces such as wind, rain, freezing, and thawing have eroded the Smokies great smoky mountains features craggy surfaces. The movement of mammoth ice sheets during the Pleistocene Epoch, from two million to ten thousand years ago, further modified the environment of the Smokies. Although great smoky mountains features glaciers did not reach this far south, their influence on the climate of the Smokies region great smoky mountains features alpine conditions on the higher crests.
The numerous boulders found in the park’s streams today originated during this moubtains as they were broken off cliffs and ledges by freezing and thawing activity. The Smokies are among the featres mountains in the Great smoky mountains features chain. Within the park, elevations range from about ‘ to 6,’, with sixteen peaks rising more than 5, feet.
Mount Le Conte towers to 6,’ from a base of 1,’, making it the tallest but not the highest smok, mountain in the East. The park’s highest summit, Clingmans Dome, is the third tallest peak great smoky mountains features of the Mississippi River.
In the Smokies high country, over 85″ of rain falls on average each year, feeding over 2, miles of rushing mountain streams and rivers that flow through the park.
The park abounds with the smooky ingredients essential for waterfalls;water and an elevation gradient. Waterfalls dot the waterways перейти the park, attracting over ,00 visitors each year to the park’s better known falls. The glacial influence on the Smokies climate, coupled with the range of elevation and the southwest to northeast layout of these mountains, accounts for the striking variety of living things читать статью in the park.
Five forest grsat within the park support over 1, species of flowering plants and at least 4, non-flowering varieties. In fact, the forests of Great Smoky Mountains National Park are world renowned for their biological diversity. Maine ocean islands provide the only nesting sites for Atlantic puffins in the United States. Air Quality. Appalachian Trail.
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Great Smoky Mountains – Wikipedia
Great Smoky Mountains, byname Great Smokies or the Smokies, western segment of the high Appalachian Mountains in eastern Tennessee and western North. The Great Smoky Mountains are a mountain range rising along the Tennessee–North Carolina border in the southeastern United States. They are a subrange of. The Great Smoky Mountains, and the entire Southern Appalachians Mountains of which they are a part, are rich in geologic history, biodiversity, and beauty.
– Great smoky mountains features
Trout in the Smokies are generally smaller than other members of their species in different locales. Protected fish species in the range include the smoky and yellowfin madtom , the spotfin chub, and the duskytail darter. The lightning-bug firefly Photinus carolinus , whose synchronized flashing light displays occur in mid-June, is native to the Smoky Mountains with a population epicenter near Elkmont, Tennessee.
Air pollution is contributing to increased Red Spruce tree mortality at higher elevations and oak decline at lower elevations, while invasive hemlock woolly adelgids attack Hemlocks and balsam woolly adelgids attack Fraser firs.
Pseudoscymnus tsugae , a type of beetle in the ladybug family, Coccinellidae , has been introduced in an attempt to control the pests. Visibility now is dramatically reduced by smog from both the Southeastern United States and the Midwest , and smog forecasts are prepared daily by the Environmental Protection Agency for both nearby Knoxville, Tennessee and Asheville, North Carolina. Environmental threats are the concern of many non-profit environmental stewardship groups, especially The Friends of the Smokies.
Formed in , the friends group assists the National Park Service in its mission to preserve and protect the Great Smoky Mountains National Park by raising funds and public awareness, and providing volunteers for needed projects. Native Americans have likely been hunting in the Great Smoky Mountains for 14, years. Numerous Archaic period c. The increasing reliance upon agriculture during the Mississippian period c. Substantial Mississippian-period villages were uncovered at Citico and Toqua named after the Cherokee villages that later thrived at these sites along the Little Tennessee River in the s.
Most of these villages were part of a minor chiefdom centered on a large village known as Chiaha , which was located on an island now submerged by Douglas Lake. The expedition of Hernando de Soto and the expedition of Juan Pardo passed through the French Broad River valley north of the Smokies, both spending a considerable amount of time at Chiaha.
The Pardo expedition followed a trail across the flanks of Chilhowee Mountain to the Mississippian-period villages at Chilhowee and Citico Pardo’s notary called them by their Muskogean names, «Chalahume» and «Satapo». By the time the first English explorers arrived in Southern Appalachia in the late 17th century, the Cherokee controlled much of the region, and the Great Smoky Mountains lay at the center of their territory.
One Cherokee legend tells of a magical lake hidden deep within the range, but inaccessible to humans. Most Cherokee settlements were located in the river valleys on the outer fringe of the Great Smokies range. The Smokies, along with the Unicois, provided the main bulwark dividing the Overhill Cherokee villages in modern Tennessee from the Cherokee Middle towns in modern North Carolina. The Overhill town of Chilhowee was situated at the confluence of Abrams Creek and the Little Tennessee, and the Overhill town of Tallassee was located just a few miles upstream near modern Calderwood both village sites are now under Chilhowee Lake.
The Cherokee Middle towns included the village of Kittowa which the Cherokee believed to be their oldest village along the Tuckasegee River near Bryson City. The village of Oconaluftee, which was situated along the Oconaluftee River near the modern Oconaluftee Visitor Center, was the only known permanent Cherokee village located within the national park’s boundaries.
Sporadic or seasonal settlements were located in Cades Cove and the Hazel Creek valley. European explorers and settlers began arriving in Western North Carolina and East Tennessee in the midth century. The influx of settlers at the end of the French and Indian War brought conflict with the Cherokee, who still held legal title to much of the land.
When the Cherokee aligned themselves with the British at the outbreak of the American Revolution in , American forces launched an invasion of Cherokee territory.
By , the Cherokee had ceded control of the Great Smokies to the U. Although much of the tribe was forced west along the Trail of Tears in , a few—largely through the efforts of William Holland Thomas —managed to retain their land on the Qualla Boundary and today comprise the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. In the s, several frontier outposts had been established along the outskirts of the Smokies, namely Whitson’s Fort in what is now Cosby and Wear’s Fort in what is now Pigeon Forge.
Permanent settlers began arriving in these areas in the s. In , the Whaley brothers, William and John, moved from North Carolina to become the first settlers in what is now the Greenbrier section of the park. Although Ogle died shortly after returning to Edgefield, his wife, Martha Jane Huskey , eventually returned with her family and several other families to White Oak Flats, becoming the first permanent settlers in what would eventually become Gatlinburg.
Their children and grandchildren spread out southward into the Sugarlands and Roaring Fork areas. Cades Cove was settled largely by families who had purchased lots from land speculator William «Fighting Billy» Tipton.
The first of these settlers, John and Lucretia Oliver, arrived in Like most of Southern Appalachia, the early 19th-century economy of the Smokies relied on subsistence agriculture. The average farm consisted of roughly 50 acres 0. Early settlers lived in 16 feet 4. Most farms included at least one barn, a springhouse used for refrigeration , a smokehouse used for curing meat , a chicken coop protected chickens from predators , and a corn crib kept corn dry and protected it from rodents.
Some of the more industrious farmers operated gristmills , general stores , and sorghum presses. Christian Protestantism —especially Primitive Baptists , Missionary Baptists , Methodists , and Presbyterians ; dominated the religious culture of the region. While both Tennessee and North Carolina joined the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in , Union sentiment in the Great Smoky Mountains was much stronger relative to other regions in these two states.
Generally, the communities on the Tennessee side of the Smokies supported the Union, while communities on the North Carolina side supported the Confederates. While no major engagements took place in the Smokies, minor skirmishes were fairly common.
Cherokee chief William Holland Thomas formed a Confederate legion made up mostly of Cherokee soldiers. Residents of predominantly Union Cades Cove and predominantly Confederate Hazel Creek routinely crossed the mountains to steal one another’s livestock.
One notable Civil War incident in the Smokies was the murder of long-time Cades Cove resident Russell Gregory for whom Gregory Bald is named , which was carried out by bushwhackers in shortly after Gregory had led an ambush that routed a band of Confederates seeking to wreak havoc in the cove. While selective logging occurred in the Great Smoky Mountains throughout the 19th century, the general inaccessibility of the range’s forests prevented major logging operations, and lumber firms relied on the lowland forests in the northeastern United States and the Mississippi Delta in the southeast.
As timber resources in these regions became exhausted, and as the demand for lumber skyrocketed after the Civil War, entrepreneurs began looking for ways to reach the virgin forests of Southern Appalachia. The first logging operations in the Smokies, which began in the s, used splash dams or booms to float logs down rivers to lumber mills in nearby cities. All three of these operations failed within their first few years, however, after their dams and boom systems were destroyed by floods.
Innovations in logging railroads and band saw technology in the late 19th century made large-scale logging possible in the mountainous areas of Southern Appalachia. The largest logging operation in the Smokies was the Little River Lumber Company, which logged the Little River watershed between and The company also established company towns at Townsend named for the company’s chief owner and manager, Wilson B.
Townsend , Elkmont , and Tremont. The second-largest operation was the Ritter Lumber Company , which logged the Hazel Creek watershed between and Ruins of Ritter’s lumbering operations are still visible along the Hazel Creek Trail. Wilson B. Townsend, the head of Little River Lumber, began advertising Elkmont as a tourist destination in Within a few years, the Wonderland Hotel and the Appalachian Club had been established to cater to elite Knoxvillians seeking summer mountain getaways.
As head of the Great Smoky Mountains Park Commission, Chapman was largely responsible for raising funds for land purchases and coordinating park efforts between local, state, and federal entities. The creation of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park proved much more complex than the creation of its predecessors, such as Yellowstone and Yosemite , which were already federally owned.
Along with convincing logging firms to sell lucrative lumber rights, the Park Commission had to negotiate the purchase of thousands of small farms and remove entire communities. The commission also had to deal with the Tennessee and North Carolina legislatures, which at times were opposed to spending taxpayer money on park efforts.
The national park officially opened in , with President Franklin D. Roosevelt presiding over the opening ceremony at Newfound Gap. The culture of the area is that of Southern Appalachia , and previously the Cherokee people.
Tourism is key to the area’s economy, particularly in cities like Pigeon Forge and Gatlinburg in Tennessee,  and Cherokee, North Carolina. In , the Great Smoky Mountains Heritage Center opened in Townsend, Tennessee, with the mission of preserving various aspects of the region’s culture.
The Tennessee Smokies baseball team plays in Sevierville, Tennessee and is named for the mountain range. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the lunar range, see Smoky Mountains Moon. Appalachian Mountain system.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
National Park Service. Retrieved November 25, See also: Appalachian temperate rainforest. Main article: Wildflowers of the Great Smoky Mountains. Archived from the original on 4 May Retrieved 3 May North Carolina» PDF.
Archived from the original PDF on 17 February Retrieved: 24 June Retrieved 2 August Gaffin and David G. Hotz National Weather Digest: 3— The Smokies are among the tallest mountains in the Appalachian chain. Within the park, elevations range from about ‘ to 6,’, with sixteen peaks rising more than 5, feet. Mount Le Conte towers to 6,’ from a base of 1,’, making it the tallest but not the highest , mountain in the East. The park’s highest summit, Clingmans Dome, is the third tallest peak east of the Mississippi River.
In the Smokies high country, over 85″ of rain falls on average each year, feeding over 2, miles of rushing mountain streams and rivers that flow through the park. The park abounds with the two ingredients essential for waterfalls—water and an elevation gradient. Waterfalls dot the waterways throughout the park, attracting over , visitors each year to the park’s better known falls. The glacial influence on the Smokies climate, coupled with the range of elevation and the southwest to northeast layout of these mountains, accounts for the striking variety of living things found in the park.
Five forest types within the park support over 1, species of flowering plants and at least 4, non-flowering varieties. In fact, the forests of Great Smoky Mountains National Park are world renowned for their biological diversity. A side road leads to Clingmans Dome, at 6, feet the highest point in the park, third highest peak in the eastern United States, and the highest place along the entire length of the Appalachian Trail.
The North Carolina side features several off-the-beaten-track diversions where the quiet side of the Smokies is there for the taking.
Among the many 19th-century buildings that remain are two churches, the school, and several private homes. The lush valley also supports a herd of wild elk. Another journey into the past is the drive along Heintooga Ridge Road and the one-way continuation along gravel Balsam Mountain Road that leads into a remote section of the park that few people ever explore and is closed in winter.
The Roaring Fork portion is closed in winter. Little River Road runs east from Sugarlands to the Elkmont historic area and a large valley called Cades Cove that was another densely populated area prior to national park status. Motorists or bikers can pick up a self-guide tour book at the orientation shelter near the drive entrance and follow the mile loop road to historic structures like the grist mill, three old churches, and bygone homes like Tipton Place.
Cades Cove Trading Company rents bikes. Although most visitors treat Cades Cove as a dead end, intrepid drivers can follow two other routes out of the valley although both are closed in winter.
Rich Mountain Road is a one-way, eight-mile route over oak-studded terrain to Townsend and eventually back around to Pigeon Forge. At feet, Fontana Dam is the tallest concrete dam east of the Rockies. The Tennessee Valley Authority maintains a visitor center beside the dam open May to October , while Fontana Marina offers kayak, paddle-board, and pontoon boat rentals, as well as guided hikes and boat tours.
Another quiet side of the park is the Greenbrier Cove, about a minute drive from Gatlinburg via Highway And the cove is the jumping-off point for several noteworthy hikes including the Brushy Mountain Trail 9. The southern end is just 0. All rights reserved. A version of this article originally appeared in the National Geographic book Parks, Ideas. Created in partnership with local land management agencies, these expertly researched maps deliver unmatched detail and helpful information to guide experienced outdoor enthusiasts and casual visitors alike.
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